There are 5 process groups in Project Management. Those 5 process groups are, Initiating Process Groups, Planning Process Groups, Executing Process Groups, Monitoring & Control Process Groups, Closing Process Groups. Initiating Process happens during the beginning of the Project or a phase. Whereas the Planning and Executing Processes go hand in hand. So you plan, execute and re-plan based on the execution result. The whole Planning and Execution process is monitored by the Monitoring & Control Processes. The Project Closing Processes are performed, when the Project work is completed.
Process Groups Interaction:
The output of one process groups is generally the input to another process group or a deliverables of the Project. For example, Project Management Plan is an output of Planning Process Group and it's an input to Project execution Group. While the project progress, the Project Management Plan may get updated and the updated Project Management Plan is again an input to the Execution Process Group.
What is the work of Project Management Process Groups?
Initiating Process Group: The initiating process group formally starts a Project by incorporating all the Needs of the Organization into a Project Charter and Preliminary scope statement. Now, what is Project Charter and Preliminary scope statement ? A Project Charter is a document that authorizes a Project. It's basically a formal go ahead on the Project by the Organization's senior management. The Project Charter has information like who is the Project Manager, who is the stakeholders of this project, what is the Product or service of the project, high level risk, cost, schedule etc of the project. A Preliminary scope statement is a high level project requirement document.
There are various inputs to the Initiating Process Group. If the Project is undertaken under a contract, than the contract is an input. If the project is undertaken to meet some Business Need of the Organization, than the Business Need is the input. The high level risk, assumptions and constraints are also indentified during the Project Initiation phase. Along with this, the high level Project Organization and the Number of phases in which the Project would be executed is also decided during this Project Initiation Process.
Planning Process Group: The planning process group determines if the project Charter can or cannot be done and how the project will be accomplished. The Project Charter and the Preliminary Scope Statement are inputs to the Planning Process Group. Based on the Preliminary Scope Statement, the project requirements are refined to make it more specific. Next, The Project deliverables are identified and also the work required to complete those deliverables. The work is also breakdown into smaller manageable pieces. The Project Manager also works on getting the approval on the Project Scope by the stakeholders. Once the Project Scope is approved, next the Project Schedule and the Cost are planned. Post this; The Quality standard of the Project is determined. Next, the detailed Roles & Responsibilities of the Project team members are identified. After that, Risk Identification, Risk Analysis and Risk Response Planning are done. If the Project requires, any third party purchases that also is identified.
Executing Process Group: The purpose of the executing Processes is to complete work in the Project Management Plan and to meet the project objectives. The focus here is on managing people; following processes and ensuring everyone in the project has the same information about the project objectives as well as every stakeholder is updated about what's happening on the project. Monitoring & Control Process Group: The purpose of the Monitoring & Controlling process group is to measure project performance as per the Project Management Plan and take appropriate action. The appropriate action can be in the form of correction & preventive actions. The inputs to the Monitoring & Controlling Process groups are Project Management Plan, Change Request and Status Reports.
Closing Process Group: A Project is considered complete not when the Project's Product scope is completed, but only when the closure is completed. The Closure includes doing administrative activities such as collecting and finalizing all the paper work needed to complete the Project and the technical work to verify that product of the project is acceptable. This process group also includes any work related to transferring the Project's product to those who will use it and returning all the project resources back to the resource pool.