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Cyber Security Tutorial: A Step-by-Step Guide


What is Cybersecurity?

Lesson - 1

Cyber Security for Beginners

Lesson - 2

How to Become a Cybersecurity Engineer?

Lesson - 3

What is Ethical Hacking?

Lesson - 4

What is Penetration Testing?: A Step-by-Step Guide

Lesson - 5

What Is SQL Injection: How to Prevent SQL Injection

Lesson - 6

How to Become an Ethical Hacker?

Lesson - 7

What Is a Firewall and Why Is It Vital?

Lesson - 8

The Complete Know-How on the

Lesson - 9

A Definitive Guide to Learn the SHA 256 Algorithm

Lesson - 10

What Is a Ransomware Attack and How Can You Prevent It?

Lesson - 11

A Look at the Top 5 Programming Languages for Hacking

Lesson - 12

The Most Informative Guide on What Is an IP Address?

Lesson - 13

The Best Ethical Hacking + Cybersecurity Books

Lesson - 14

10 Types of Cyber Attacks You Should Be Aware in 2022

Lesson - 15

The Top Computer Hacks of All Time

Lesson - 16

Top 6 Cyber Security Jobs in 2022

Lesson - 17

The Best Guide to The Top Cybersecurity Interview Questions

Lesson - 18

What Is a Brute Force Attack and How to Protect Our Data Against It?

Lesson - 19

The Top 8 Cybersecurity Skills You Must Have

Lesson - 20

Your Guide to Choose the Best Operating System Between Parrot OS vs. Kali Linux

Lesson - 21

All You Need to Know About Parrot Security OS

Lesson - 22

The Best and Easiest Way to Understand What Is a VPN

Lesson - 23

What Is NMap? A Comprehensive Tutorial for Network Mapping

Lesson - 24

What Is Google Dorking? Your Way to Becoming the Best Google Hacker

Lesson - 25

Your Best Guide to a Successful Cyber Security Career Path

Lesson - 26

The Value of Python in Ethical Hacking and a Password Cracking Tutorial

Lesson - 27

The Best Guide to Understand What Is TCP/IP Model?

Lesson - 28

What Are Keyloggers and Its Effect on Our Devices?

Lesson - 29

Best Guide to Understand the Importance of What Is Subnetting

Lesson - 30

Your Guide to What Is 5G and How It Works

Lesson - 31

How to Crack Passwords and Strengthen Your Credentials Against Brute-Force

Lesson - 32

A Look at ‘What Is Metasploitable’, a Hacker’s Playground Based on Ubuntu Virtual Machines

Lesson - 33

One-Stop Guide to Understanding What Is Distance Vector Routing?

Lesson - 34

Best Walkthrough for Understanding the Networking Commands

Lesson - 35

Best Guide to Understanding the Operation of Stop-and-Wait Protocol

Lesson - 36

The Best Guide to Understanding the Working and Importance of Go-Back-N ARQ Protocol

Lesson - 37

What Are Digital Signatures: A Thorough Guide Into Cryptographic Authentication

Lesson - 38

The Best Spotify Data Analysis Project You Need to Know

Lesson - 39

A One-Stop Solution Guide to Understand Data Structure and Algorithm Complexity

Lesson - 40

Your One-Stop Guide ‘On How Does the Internet Work?’

Lesson - 41

An Introduction to Circuit Switching and Packet Switching

Lesson - 42

One-Stop Guide to Understanding What Is Network Topology?

Lesson - 43

A Deep Dive Into Cross-Site Scripting and Its Significance

Lesson - 44

The Best Walkthrough on What Is DHCP and Its Working

Lesson - 45

A Complete Look at What a Proxy Is, Along With the Working of the Proxy Server

Lesson - 46

A Detailed Guide to Understanding What Identity and Access Management Is

Lesson - 47

The Best Guide to Understanding the Working and Effects of Sliding Window Protocol

Lesson - 48

The Best Guide That You’ll Ever Need to Understand Typescript and Express

Lesson - 49

Express REST API

Lesson - 50

All You Need to Know About Express JS Middleware

Lesson - 51

An Absolute Guide to Know Everything on Expressions in C

Lesson - 52

A Definitive Guide on How to Create a Strong Password

Lesson - 53

Ubuntu vs. Debian: A Look at Beginner Friendly Linux Distribution

Lesson - 54

Your One-Stop Guide to Learn Command Prompt Hacks

Lesson - 55

Best Walkthrough to Understand the Difference Between IPv4 and IPv6

Lesson - 56

What Is Kali NetHunter? A Deep Dive Into the Hackbox for Android

Lesson - 57

A Perfect Guide That Explains the Differences Between a Hub and a Switch

Lesson - 58

The Best Guide to Help You Understand What Is Network Security

Lesson - 59

What Is CIDR? And Its Importance in the Networking Domain

Lesson - 60
The Best Guide to The Top Cybersecurity Interview Questions

In today's digital world, protecting our data is highly crucial. Individuals to organizations find it challenging to safeguard crucial digital data. To overcome these challenges, we implement cybersecurity. Currently, there is an enormous demand for cyber security professionals. This article on cybersecurity interview questions will acquaint you with a set of the top 50 cyber security interview questions and answers. 

So, let's start with our cyber security interview questions article.

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Cybersecurity Interview Questions - Networking

We will start with a set of cyber security interview questions based on networking.

01. What is the OSI model? Explain the different layers of the OSI model.

The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model is a reference model that describes how applications interact with each other over a computer network. It has seven layers; they are as shown below:

different layers of the OSI model in cyber security

  1. Physical Layer: This is the lowest level of the OSI model. Here, data is converted into an electrical impulse and sent through a physical medium. It is also responsible for the physical connection between the devices.
  2. Data Link Layer: Here, the data packet is encoded and decoded into bits. This layer looks into the node to node delivery of a message.
  3. Network Layer: In this layer, datagrams are transferred from one to another. The functions here are routing and logical addressing.
  4. Transport Layer: This layer is responsible for end-to-end connections. The data in this layer is called segments. This is where TCP and UDP protocols work.
  5. Session Layer: This layer controls signals between computers. The session layer establishes, maintains, and ends connections between processes.
  6. Presentation Layer: It is responsible for translating data into the application layer format. Here, the data is formatted, encrypted, and then sent to the next layer.
  7. Application Layer: Finally, here, services are provided to the end-users. The application layer deals with any sort of data that the application of a machine generates, like a user input such as a password, and so on.  

02. Define Unicasting, Multicasting, and Broadcasting.

Unicast, Multicast, and Broadcast are the three methods by which we transmit data over a network. 

  1. Unicast: It sends the information from a single user to a single receiver. We use this for point-to-point communications. 
  2. Multicast: Here, data is sent from one or more sources to multiple destinations. 
  3. Broadcast: Broadcast is known as one-to-all, i.e., the communication is between a single user and several receivers.  

03. What is DNS?

DNS stands for Domain Name System. It maps the domain name into its corresponding IP address. 

As seen below, the DNS server provides the website's IP address. 

DNS in Cyber Security

04. What is a Firewall?

It is software or hardware that blocks incoming or outgoing traffic from the internet to your computer. They are responsible for securing a network. 

firewall in in Cyber Security

The figure above shows how good traffic is allowed to enter the user's network. Similarly, the figure below shows how the firewall blocks the bad traffic, thereby protecting the user's network.


A few common types of firewalls are:

  1. Packet-filtering Firewalls: These are the most common type of firewalls that analyze packets and let them pass through only if they match an established security rule-set.
  2. Proxy Firewalls: They filter network traffic at the application level.
  3. Stateful Multilayer Inspection (SMLI) Firewalls: These filter packets at the network, transport, and application layers. Here, the packets are compared to the known trusted packets.

05. What is a VPN?

VPN is also called a Virtual Private Network; it connects a VPN server and a VPN client. It creates a safe encrypted tunnel across the internet. 

As seen below, the user has a VPN client installed on the machine. The VPN client then creates an encrypted tunnel to the VPN server; thus, information is received and sent to the internet securely. 

vpn server in Cyber Security

06. What are the advantages of distributed processing?

Distributed processing describes various computer systems that use more than one processor to run an application. Multiple computers across different locations share the same processor. The advantages of distributed processing are:

  1. Data Recovery: When one computer loses data, another interconnected computer can recover this loss of data.
  2. Reliability: Any glitch in one machine does not affect the processing since it will use several other machines.
  3. Lower Cost: Several cost-effective minicomputers are used instead of using costlier mainframe machines.
  4. Easy to expand: Depending on the data processing amount, we can attach additional computers to the network.

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07. What is TCP/ IP?

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is a set of communication protocols used to interconnect network devices on the internet. It defines how data should be transmitted over the internet by providing end-to-end communication.

Internet Protocol (IP) is all about routing every individual packet to ensure it reaches its destination. The TCP/IP model is a compressed version of the OSI model. It consists of four layers; they are:

application layer in in Cyber Security

08. What do you mean by ipconfig and ifconfig?



ipconfig (Internet Protocol Configuration) is a command used on Microsoft Windows to view and configure the network interface.

ifconfig (Interface Configuration) command is used on Linux, Mac, and UNIX operating systems.

This is a useful command for displaying all the TCP/IP network summary information currently available on a network. Additionally,  it also helps in modifying the DHCP protocol and the DNS setting.

This command is used to configure and control the TCP/IP network interface parameters from the Command Line Interface. It also allows you to view the IP addresses of these network interfaces.

09. What is the difference between Domain and Workgroup?



A domain is a centralized network model.

A workgroup is a decentralized network model.

Here, one administrator manages the domain and its resources.

Here, every user manages the resources individually on their PCs.

It is good for large networks.

It is good for small networks.

Here, the computer can be connected to any network.

All the computers here should be connected to the same LAN.

10. What is Data encapsulation in networking?

Data encapsulation is the process of adding headers and trailers to data. The data link layer binds each packet into a frame that consists of the hardware address of the source and the destination computer.


Let's now head to the next section of this article on cybersecurity interview questions.

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Cyber Security Interview Questions - Software and Programming

This section will take you through a set of cyber security interview questions based on software and programming.

11. How do you keep your computer secure?

There are a few steps that one has to implement in order to keep their computer secure. A few of these steps are:

  1. Implement a 2-way or multi-factor authentication 
  2. Use uncommon alphanumeric passwords and secure them 
  3. Update your computer regularly
  4. Install a good antivirus to protect your computer from malware
  5. Have a specialized firewall to keep attacks at a minimum
  6. Have anti-phishing software installed to identify fraudulent mails
  7. Use encryption to reduce data leakage and loss
  8. Finally, it is very crucial to secure your DNS 

12. Discuss security-related aspects between C, C++, and Java.






Supports pointers, most secure.

Supports pointers, secure.

Not supported, direct access to the memory location.

Code translations

Compiled, not secure.

Compiled, not secure.

Interpreted, abstracted, and secure.

Storage allocation

Uses malloc, calloc, less secure.

Uses new, delete, comparatively secure.

Uses garbage collector, more secure.


No inheritance, not secure.

Supported, most secure.

Multi-inheritance not supported, comparatively secure.



Least secure

More secure

Most secure

13. What are the different sources of malware?

Malware is a malicious software that harms the security of your device. The different sources of malware are:

  1. Pop-ups
  2. Removable media
  3. Documents and executable files
  4. Internet downloads
  5. Network connections
  6. Email attachments
  7. Malicious advertisements

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14. How does email work?

As you can see below, here, there are two servers, both using SMTP. We have John and Jack, and in this scenario, John wants to send an email to Jack. Thus, they have an email client installed on their machine connected to the mail exchange server, which has a DNS server that maps the routing and maps the exchange server and inboxes. 


So when John composes the message and clicks on send, he should be connected to a mail exchange server where the email is sent through that particular person's inbox. So John's inbox will then be validated, and that email will then be sent through the DNS server through the internet and will be received by the recipient mail server. 

While John composes the mail, the from the field will have his email address, and the to the field will have Jack's email address. When he clicks on send, it will go to their exchange server. The exchange server will then validate the inbox and identify where the inbox is located for Jack, and then through the internet, it will be sent to the mail server of Jack. 

The mail server will then identify the right inbox that email needs to be sent to, and it stores the email in that particular inbox of the recipient. This way, when Jack accesses his inbox, the email from John will be waiting in his inbox. Jack can then reply the same way John sent the email.

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15. What are the types of threats a company can face?

There are several threats that a company can face; on a broader scale, we can classify them as:

  1. Natural Threats: These include natural disasters beyond human control, threats like a tornado, fire, floods, etc.
  2. Man-made: These are threats where humans are the cause, like theft, hacking, etc.
  3. Technical: These threats could be either a software bug or a server fail, or any technical failure.
  4. Supply System: Any electric outage or short circuit kind of problem falls under this category. 

16. What are black box and white box testing?

In black box testing, the tester has zero knowledge of the IT infrastructure. Here, the testers will be unaware of the application, and they would have to gather information all by themselves. Based on the gathered information, testers will identify system vulnerabilities, if any. It is important as it emulates the attack of an external hacker.

A white box attack emulates an insider who can be an employee in the organization trying to make unvalidated profits. In this form of testing, the tester has complete knowledge of the IT infrastructure. 

17. What is use-case testing?

Use-case testing is a functional black box testing. Testers use it to get the test scenarios to exercise the entire system from start to finish. For example, when the software is made for users to use for documentation. The testers will test all the cases that a user can do like shown below:


18. What is static and dynamic testing?

Static Testing

Dynamic Testing

Static testing is done in the early stage of the development life cycle.

Dynamic testing is done at the end of the development life cycle.

It includes walkthroughs and code review.

It includes functional and non-functional testing.

Static testing is 100% accurate in a very short amount of time.

Dynamic testing involves several test cases that take a longer time.

Static testing is about prevention.

Whereas dynamic testing is about a cure.

19. What are the test levels in software testing?

The test levels in software testing are:

  1. Module testing: It checks subprograms, procedures, routines, and subroutines in a program.
  2. Integration testing: Here, the combined parts of an application of software are tested to check if they function correctly or not.
  3. System testing: System testing tests the entire system or software or any application.
  4. Acceptance testing: The quality assurance team does this testing to check if the clients' requirements are met or not.

20. What are the valuable steps to resolve issues while testing?

The following steps can be implemented to resolve issues while testing:

  1. Record: Log and resolve the problems which have happened
  2. Report: Report issues to the higher-level managers
  3. Control: Define the issue management process

Let's now proceed to the next section of this article on cybersecurity interview questions.

21. What is the difference between Symmetric and Asymmetric encryption?

Basis of Comparison

Symmetric Encryption

Asymmetric Encryption

Encryption key

ONE Key for  

  • Encryption
  • Decryption

TWO keys - 

  • One for encryption
  • One for decryption


  • Fast  Encryption 
  • Higher risks

Slow Encryption for high computation


  • DES 
  • 3DES
  • AES
  • RC4
  • Diffie-Hellman
  • RSA


Best in bulk data transmission

Preferred for secure exchange of secret keys

22. What is the difference between IDS and IPS?

  •  Intrusion Detection System (IDS) - performs only one action
    • Detects intrusions, and
    • Administrator should handle prevention of intrusion  
  • Intrusion Prevention System(IPS) - performs two actions 
    • Detects intrusion, and 
    • Prevents intrusion

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23. Explain CIA triad.

A key set of guidelines used by most organizations for securing information is called the CIA Triad:  Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability. 

  • Confidentiality: Accessible and readable only by authorized personnel.
  • Integrity: Data is not manipulated by unauthorized personnel.
  • Availability: Ensuring data is available to the user whenever it is required. It should also support hardware maintenance, regular upgrades, recovery, network bottleneck, and data backup.

24. How is Encryption different from Hashing?

Encryption and Hashing convert data in readable format into an unreadable format. In the case of encryption, data CAN BE converted into its original form by decryption. However, in the case of hashing, data CAN NOT be returned to the original format.

25. What is the difference between VA (Vulnerability Assessment) and PT(Penetration Testing)?

Vulnerability Assessment: 

This is the process deployed to find out the flaws in the target itself.  This is because the organization has already determined the flaws or weaknesses and has to prioritize the issues for fixing. 

Penetration Testing:

In this method, the attempt is to find the vulnerability of the target itself. The process is to establish if the security measures the organization has implemented are sufficient to protect it from being hacked and if the system and network are well protected.

26. What is a three-way handshake?

An important method deployed in TCP/IP networks is the three-way handshake. It creates a connection between the client, and the host and follows three steps and hence the name.

  1. One, the client first sends an SYN synchronization packet to the server to check if the server has open ports.
  2. Two, the server will then send an SYN-ACK packet to the client if its ports are open.
  3. Three, the client will acknowledge and reply and send an ACK packet back to the server.

27. What are the response codes that can be received from a Web Application?

There are response codes that are received from a web application. They are as follows: 

  • 1XX is information responses
  • 2XX is success  
  • 3XX is redirection 
  • 4XX  is client-side error 
  • 5 XX is server side error

28. What is traceroute? Why is it used?

The use of a traceroute is to identify the path of a packet. It provides the points, especially the main nodes that the packet will pass through. The main purpose of using a packet is to identify when a packet does not reach a destination. The traceroute tool is used for evaluating the connection stops and the breaks at any point of failure.

29. What is the difference between HIDS and NIDS?

There is one main difference between HIDS and NIDS. At the macro level, HIDS for Host IDs and Network ID is an intrusion detection system and focuses on identifying any attacks. At the micro level, the basic difference is in how the Host IDS is established on the host or the device. It will monitor the traffic for that particular device every time there is suspicious activity. But NIDS is established for the entire network. It will monitor the traffic arising from every device on the network.

30. What are the steps to set up a firewall?

There are several steps followed to set up a firewall. They are: 

  1. Password and username: The default password for the firewall device is modified.
  2. Remote administration: Disabling the remote administration feature.
  3. Port forwarding: The appropriate port forwarding is configured for certain applications to perform correctly. For example, a web server or FTP server has to be configured to the appropriate port.
  4. DHCP server: When there is an existing DHCP server, installing the firework will lead to conflict. Only, when the firewall HCP is disabled will it work.
  5. Logging: Troubleshooting firewalls and protecting against potential attacks login is enabled to understand the nature of logins or view the logs.
  6. Policies: The organization should implement well-structured security policies to ensure that users and external users follow the required protocol and ensure that the firewall is configured to follow through with the established policies of the organization. 

31. Explain SSL Encryption

Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is the standard followed in the security knowledge industry to develop encrypted connections between the browser as well as the web server. This standard ensures that data privacy is maintained and that online transactions are protected from external attacks. 

The following steps have to be followed to establish an SSL connection:

  1. The browser will connect to the web server which is secured by SSL.
  2. The browser will send a copy of the SSL certificate.
  3. The browser verifies if the SSL certificate is trustworthy. If trustworthy, the browser will send a message to the server requesting to establish an encrypted connection.
  4. The web server acknowledges and starts to build an SSL encrypted connection.
  5. The encrypted SSL communication begins between the browser and the web server.

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32. What steps will you take to secure a server?

The Secure Socket Layer (SSL) is a protocol where data encryption and decryption will protect it from being intercepted by authorized users. The simple ways to secure the server are as follows:

  1. Ensure that the password for root and administrative users is secured.
  2. New users can be included in the system now. They will manage the system as per the policies established.
  3. Remote access is removed for default administrator accounts.
  4. The following steps have to be followed to configure Firewall rules for remote access.

33. Explain Data Leakage.

Data leakage is defined as the unintentional or planned leakage of data of an organization to external users, those who do not have permission to access or view such data. It typically is the disclosure of confidential information to unauthorized users.  
There are three ways in which such leakage can occur:
1.Accidental Breach: A user has unintentionally sent the data to a person who is not permitted to view it and is thus a personal error or blunder.
2. Intentional Breach: A user sends confidential data to an entity that is not permitted to view it, on purpose.
3. System Hack: Different techniques are used such that data leakage is triggered. The major solution to contain data leakage is to use preventive tools software and certain techniques or strategies called the data leakage prevention tools.

34. What are some of the common Cyber Attacks?

Some of the common types of cyber attacks are Phishing, password attacks, malware, drive-by downloads, man-in-the-middle, roque software, and malvertising.

35. What is a Brute Force Attack? How can you prevent it?           

Brute force is the attempt to repetitively try different permutations and combinations to break a given password. There are automated tools and software that try to login based on a list of credentials.

36. What is Port Scanning?

Port scanning is defined as the method to identify ports that are open and use the services of the host.

37. What do you understand about "Risk, Vulnerability & Threat" in a network?

  • Threat is defined as the potential harm to a system or organization by a likely attacker. 
  • Vulnerability is defined as the weakness in the system which the hacker can exploit.
  • Risk is the loss or damage that is likely to happen when the Threat will attack a Vulnerability.

38. How can identity theft be prevented?

Identity theft can be prevented by ensuring unique passwords, social media restrictions, shopping from trusted websites, installing spyware and malware protection tools, using only specialized security solutions for financial data, and always updating systems and software. 

39. How often should you perform Patch management?

Patch management has to be applied as soon as they are released. The purpose of a patch is to overcome existing vulnerabilities in a system. Any delays in the patch update would only result in exposing the system to risks and attacks. 

40. How would you reset a password-protected BIOS configuration?

BIOS is a pre-boot system and influences its own storage mechanism for references and other settings. It is reset by popping the CMOS battery out so that the settings in the memory are discharged and new settings can be installed after the battery is replaced. 

41. Explain MITM attack and how to prevent it.

MITM attack or a man-in-the-middle attack is a severe type of Cyber attack since the hacker will remain between the communication of two parties and steal all information. The data from both parties are used by the hacker to redirect the data to a third destination party leaving both parties compromised.

42. Explain DDOS attack and how to prevent it.

Distributed denial of service attack is one of the commonest types. In this method, the servers refused to provide the services to genuine clients due to flooding of attacks or crashing of attacks. 

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43. Explain XSS attack and how to prevent it.

Cross-site scripting on XSS is a type of Cyber attack which leads to hackers injecting malicious client-side scripts into web pages. Xss is used for hijacking sessions or modifying the Dom or stealing cookies and remote code execution as well as crashing a given server. 

44. What is an ARP and how does it work?

ARP or Address Resolution Protocol is a type of method for mapping an internet protocol address or the IP address with a physical machine address that is recognized within the Local Network. When the incoming packet for a host machine on a network is at the Gateway, it will ask the ARP program to find the actual MAC address of the device which matches its IP address.

45. What is port blocking within LAN?

Local Area Network (LAN) port blocking is defined as a method to restrict users from seeking out the service that is within the local area network and is called blocking. This type is used such that the destination nodes are not accessible and can be used only on the internet for one device running on it. These are used to prevent hacking of victims and stealing of data.

46. What protocols fall under the TCP/IP internet layer?


Protocol Examples


NFS, NIS+, DNS,   rlogin, rsh, rcp, RIP, FTP and others


  • TCP
  • UDP


  • IP
  •  ARP
  •  ICM

Data Link

  • PPP
  •  IEEE 802.2

Physical Network

Ethernet (IEEE 802.3) 

Token ring or RS-232 and others

47. What is a Botnet?

When a number of related malicious program-carrying devices are connected to the  internet they are called a botnet. . These related devices are controlled by a common attacking party to perform malicious activities e.g. send spam.

48. What are salted hashes?

Salted hashes are the use of random data for protecting passwords to receive a new password and creating a hash value for that password, where a random salt value and the combined value are also stored in the database. And this protects the system from dictionary attacks and is thus known as a hash attack. 

49. Explain SSL and TLS.

SSL is defined as the method of secure socket layer for verifying the Identity of the center and nothing else. And SSL will help the person to ensure and track the person you are talking to but can also be tricked. TLS is a type of identification tool similar to SSL. But it ensures that there are improved security features and additional protection to the layer. These have to be used together.

50. What is data protection in transit vs data protection at rest?

When data is protected in transit the data goes only from the server to the client. The effectiveness of data protection is critical for ensuring that there is no loss of data. 

Data protection at test- is when the database is on the hard drive. The data at rest is sometimes less vulnerable than the data in transit.

51. What is 2FA and how can it be implemented for public websites?

2FA or multiple-factor authentication is an extra layer of security. It uses the password and username but will also need special information only that should be known to the user such as the physical token itself. Authentication apps replace the need for verification code on text or call mail or email.

52. What is Cognitive Cybersecurity?

Cognitive cyber security is the application of artificial intelligence technologies for the human thought process to identify threats and protect physical and digital systems. 

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53. What is the difference between VPN and VLAN?

VPN the group workstations are within the same locations and in the same broadcast, the main logically segregated networks and have no physical connection. VLAN - this is related to remote access to the company network. The connection of two points within a secured and encrypted tunnel. There is no encryption technique involved and it slices the logical network into different sections to manage and secure different aspects.

54. Explain Phishing and how to prevent it.

Phishing is a common cyber attack where the cybercriminal acts like a trusted person and extricates sensitive and financial information from users or victims. Phishing attacks can be prevented by ensuring that firewalls are used, antivirus software and internet security are used and sensitive information is not included in web pages that cannot be trusted.

Cyber Security Interview Questions - Operating Systems and Applications

This section of cyber security interview questions is based on operating systems and applications.

55. What is virtual memory?

Virtual memory is a storage allocation method in which a secondary memory (hard disk) is used as the primary memory (RAM).

56. What are the different scheduling algorithms?

Listed below are the different scheduling algorithms:

  1. First come, first serve: The process which requests the CPU first gets the CPU allocation first.
  2. Shortest job first: Here, the process with the shortest execution time should be selected for execution next.
  3. Priority scheduling: Here, the scheduler selects the tasks to work as per the priority.
  4. Multiple level queues: Processes are assigned to a queue based on a specific property like the process priority, size of the memory, etc.
  5. Shortest remaining time: Here, the process will be allocated to the task, which is closest to its completion. 
  6. Round Robin: Each process that comes, in turn, gets an equal share of time.

57. What are the steps involved in hacking a server or network?

This is more of an ethical hacking question; the steps involved in hacking a server or network are:

  1. Reconnaissance: In this phase, all the evidence and information on the target are gathered.
  2. Scanning: Here, you take the gathered information and apply various tools and techniques to collect more in-depth information on the targets.
  3. Gain access:  In this phase, accurate attacks are leveled against the targets enumerated in the second phase.
  4. Maintain access: Here, hackers ensure that they have a way back into the compromised system.
  5. Cover tracks: Finally, attackers try to conceal their success and avoid detection by security professionals.

58. What are the various sniffing tools?

 Given below is a list of a few of the sniffing tools:

  1. Wireshark: It is used to analyze the network in detail
  2. TCPDUMP: It analyzes the packets which are transmitted
  3. MSN Sniffer 2: MSN Sniffer 2 is the first chat sniffing tool
  4. Ettercap: This tool is perfect for the man in the middle attack
  5. Dsniff: It is a password and network analyzing tool
  6. EtherApe: It displays the network activity graphically

59. What is an operating system?

It is a software program that provides a computer hardware platform to communicate and operate with the computer software.

For input and output functions, the operating system acts as an intermediate between the program and computer hardware. Some examples of OS are Windows, Unix, Android, Linux, etc.

60. What is the difference between microkernel and macrokernel?











Easy to extend

Hard to extend


If it crashes, only the working on the microkernel is affected

If it crashes, the whole system is affected



More coding is required

Less coding is required


QNX, Symbian, L4Linux

Linux, BSDs

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61. What are the various types of operating systems?

The various types of operating systems are:

  1. Batched OS: The computer operator places the jobs coming from input devices into batches.
  2. Distributed OS: Many computers are interconnected with communication networks.
  3. Time-sharing OS: Time-sharing OS minimizes the response time.
  4. Multi programmed OS: The operating system uses CPU scheduling to separate jobs.
  5. Real-time OS: Here, the OS gives maximum time to critical operations.

62. What is the difference between logical address space and physical address space?


Logical Address

Physical Address


The address generated during the running of a program is called the logical address.

A physical address is the physical location of the memory.



Not viewable

Address space




Access only physical address

Not directly accessed



Generated by CPU

Computed by the memory management unit




63. Which shells are used in Linux?

The shells used in Linux are:

  1. bash: Bourne again shell is the default for Linux distributions
  2. ksh: Korn shell is a high-level programming shell that supports associative arrays and built-in operations
  3. csh: C shell does spelling corrections and job control
  4. zsh: Z shell provides unique features like filename generation, startup files, etc.
  5. fish: Friendly interactive shell which provides features like auto-suggestions, configurations, etc.

64. What are the process states in Linux?

The process states in Linux are:

  1. Ready: In this state, the process is created and is ready to run.
  2. Running: Here, the process is being executed.
  3. Blocked or wait: In this state, the process is waiting for input from the user.
  4. Completed or Terminated: Here, either the process completed execution or was terminated by the OS.
  5. Zombie: In this state, the process is terminated, but the process table still holds the information.

Let's go to the next section of this article on cybersecurity interview questions.

Cyber Security Interview Questions - Cyberattacks

This section of cyber security interview questions is based on cyberattacks. 

65. What is SQL injection?

An SQL injection vulnerability enables an attacker to inject malicious input into an SQL statement. This attack allows the attackers to view, edit, and delete tables in a database. Additionally, attackers can also obtain administrative rights.

The types of SQL injection are:

    1. In-band SQLi: Error-based and Union-based
    2. Blind SQLi: Boolean-based and Time-based
    3. Out-of-bound SQLi

66. What is Spoofing?

In spoofing, an attacker pretends to be another person or organization and sends you an email that appears to be legitimate. The email looks almost genuine, and it is hard to spot such a fake one. An example of such an email is as follows:


67. What is a Distributed Denial of Service attack (DDoS)?

A Denial of Service attacks' objective is to flood networks and systems with traffic to exhaust their resources and bandwidth. By doing so, a website is unable to cater to legitimate service requests. When hackers use multiple systems to launch this attack, it is known as a Distributed Denial of Service (DDOS) attack.


68. How to avoid ARP poisoning?

The following steps can avoid ARP poisoning:

  1. Using Packet Filtering: Packet filters filter out and block packets that have the same source address data.
  2. Keeping away from trust relationships: Organizations develop protocols that do not depend on trust relationships.
  3. Utilize ARP Spoofing Software: ARP spoofing software gauges the information before transmission and blocks the information that is spoofed.

69. What is ransomware?

Ransomware blocks victims from accessing personal files and demands a ransom to regain access. It is a type of malware. There are three categories of ransomware:

  1. Scareware: It is a form of malware that uses social engineering to cause fear or anxiety to manipulate users into buying unwanted software.
  2. Screen Lockers: Here, the users' computers are locked, and it displays an official-looking message. It thus prevents them from logging in to their computers.
  3. Encrypting Ransomware: The ransomware displays a message demanding payment in return for the private asymmetric key needed to decrypt the encrypted file's symmetric keys.

70. What is the difference between active and passive cyberattacks?

As seen below, in an active attack, the attacker attempts to disrupt a network's normalcy, edits data, and alters the system resources.


Whereas, in a passive attack, the hacker intercepts the data traveling through the network. Here as seen below, the intruder eavesdrops but does not modify the message. 


71. What is a social engineering attack?

Social engineering attacks manipulate people so that they end up sharing their confidential information. This attack has three categories:

  1. Phishing Attack: Here, the user opens the mail with the attachment and unknowingly downloads the virus.
  2. Spear Phishing Attack: Here, the attacker targets a specific individual or a group of people.
  3. Whaling Phishing Attack: Whaling Phishing attack is a type of attack that specifically targets wealthy, powerful, and prominent individuals.

72. What is the man in the middle attack?

Here, the attacking computer takes the IP address of the client. The server continues communicating with the attacker, unaware of this.


73. Who are black hat hackers and white hat hackers?

Black hat hackers are highly skilled individuals who illegally hack into a system. The motive behind this is mostly for monetary gain. These individuals are also known as security crackers. 

White Hat Hackers, also called ethical hackers, are individuals who discover vulnerabilities in a computer network. Such a hacker works to defend organizations and governments.

74. What are honeypots?

Honeypots are computer systems that are used to lure attackers. It is used to deceive attackers and defend the real network from any attack. As seen below, the real network is safeguarded.


Let's now head to the final section of this article on cybersecurity interview questions.

Cyber Security Interview Questions - Cryptography

This section of cyber security interview questions is based on the concept of cryptography.

75. Define cryptography, encryption, and decryption.

Ethical hackers use cryptography to secure information. It involves converting data from a readable format to a non-readable format and vice versa.  

Encryption: Converting a message from a readable state to a scrambled state, making no sense. In the below example, Key = Alphabet + 2.


Decryption: The message is decrypted using a secret key that is known only to the recipient. Decryption  = Alphabet - 2 in the given example.


76. What is the difference between ciphertext and cleartext?

Ciphertext refers to the text which is encrypted and undecipherable. The message received after decryption is known as cleartext. This text is understandable.



77. What is a block cipher?

This refers to the method of encrypting the plain message block by block. The plain message is broken down into fixed-size blocks and then encrypted.


78. What is Public Key Infrastructure?

Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) is a set of policies that secures the communication between a server and a client. It uses two cryptographic keys, public and private. 


PKI enables trusted digital identities for people. PKI grants secure access to digital resources. The core of PKI is a certificate authority, which ensures the trustworthiness of the digital data.

79. What is RSA?

RSA is a public-key cryptosystem that is used for secure data transmission. RSA stands for Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman, who are the inventors of the technique. It is an asymmetric cryptography algorithm that works on both public and private keys. Here, the encryption key is public, and the decryption key is kept private. 


80. What are a few of the alternatives to RSA?

The alternatives to RSA are as follows:

  1. Duo Security
  2. Okta
  3. Google Authenticator
  4. LastPass

81. What are the prime objectives of modern cryptography?

The prime objectives of modern cryptography are:

  1. Confidentiality: Confidentiality helps in keeping the information safe from unauthorized people. 
  2. Non-repudiation: Non-repudiation prevents denial in an electronic transaction.
  3. Authenticity: Authenticity helps in identifying the source of the created information.
  4. Integrity: Integrity makes sure that the data received by the receiver is not modified.

82. What is SAFER?

Secure and Fast Encryption Routine(SAFER) is a block cipher. This has a 64-bit block size and a byte-oriented algorithm. SAFER's encryption and decryption procedures are highly secure. This technology is used widely in applications like digital payment cards.

83. How does the Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) work?

The working of Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) at a macro level is as follows:

  1. Firstly, the request for the Digital Certificate is sent to the appropriate CA (Certificate Authority).
  2. Once the request is processed, the Digital Certificate is issued to the person requesting it.
  3. After that, the Digital Certificate gets signed by confirming the identity of the person.
  4. Now, the Digital Certificate can be used to encrypt the cleartext into a ciphertext, which is sent from the sending party to the other party.

84. What is the Blowfish algorithm?

It is a 64-bit symmetric encryption algorithm. The same secret key is used for encrypting and decrypting. Here, the operations are based on exclusive ors and additions on 32bit words. The key has a maximum length of 448 bits; it is variable. It is also used to generate several subkey arrays.

So, those were the top 50 cyber security interview questions that can help you crack your cybersecurity interview. 

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Now that you know the various cyber security interview questions that can be asked in an interview, you can prepare by referring to the given answers for each of these concept-based cybersecurity questions. 

Here, we had a look at a plethora of cyber security interview questions based on concepts like networking, software and programming, operating system and applications, cyberattacks, and cryptography. I hope this article on cyber security interview questions was useful. 

Do you have any questions for us related to this article? If so, then please put it in the comments section of the article. Our experts will answer your queries right away!

About the Author

Shruti MShruti M

Shruti is an engineer and a technophile. She works on several trending technologies. Her hobbies include reading, dancing and learning new languages. Currently, she is learning the Japanese language.

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