Tutorial Playlist

Data Structure Tutorial


Arrays in Data Structures: A Guide With Examples

Lesson - 1

All You Need to Know About Two-Dimensional Arrays

Lesson - 2

All You Need to Know About a Linked List in a Data Structure

Lesson - 3

The Complete Guide to Implement a Singly Linked List

Lesson - 4

The Ultimate Guide to Implement a Doubly Linked List

Lesson - 5

The Fundamentals for Understanding Circular Linked List

Lesson - 6

The Ultimate Guide To Understand The Differences Between Stack And Queue

Lesson - 7

Implementing Stacks in Data Structures

Lesson - 8

Your One-Stop Solution for Stack Implementation Using Array

Lesson - 9

Your One-Stop Solution for Queue Implementation Using Array

Lesson - 10

Your One-Stop Solution to Learn Depth-First Search(DFS) Algorithm From Scratch

Lesson - 11

Your One-Stop Solution for Stack Implementation Using Linked-List

Lesson - 12

The Definitive Guide to Understand Stack vs Heap Memory Allocation

Lesson - 13

All You Need to Know About Linear Search Algorithm

Lesson - 14

All You Need to Know About Breadth-First Search Algorithm

Lesson - 15

A One-Stop Solution for Using Binary Search Trees in Data Structure

Lesson - 16

The Best Tutorial to Understand Trees in Data Structure

Lesson - 17

A Complete Guide to Implement Binary Tree in Data Structure

Lesson - 18

A Holistic Look at Using AVL Trees in Data Structures

Lesson - 19

All You Need to Know About Tree Traversal in Data Structure

Lesson - 20

The Best Guide You’ll Ever Need to Understand B-Tree in Data Structure

Lesson - 21

The Best Guide You'll Ever Need to Understand Spanning Tree in Data Structure

Lesson - 22

The Best and Easiest Way to Understand an Algorithm

Lesson - 23

Your One-Stop Solution to Understand Shell Sort Algorithm

Lesson - 24

Your One-Stop Solution to Quick Sort Algorithm

Lesson - 25

The Most Useful Guide to Learn Selection Sort Algorithm

Lesson - 26

Everything You Need to Know About Radix Sort Algorithm

Lesson - 27

Everything You Need to Know About the Counting Sort Algorithm

Lesson - 28

Everything You Need to Know About the Merge Sort Algorithm

Lesson - 29

Insertion Sort Algorithm: One-Stop Solution That Will Help You Understand Insertion Sort

Lesson - 30

Everything You Need to Know About the Bubble Sort Algorithm

Lesson - 31

The Best Guide You’ll Ever Need to Understand Bucket Sort Algorithm

Lesson - 32

Your One-Stop Solution to Understand Recursive Algorithm in Programming

Lesson - 33

The Definitive Guide to Understanding Greedy Algorithm

Lesson - 34

Your One-Stop Solution to Understand Backtracking Algorithm

Lesson - 35

The Fundamentals of the Bellman-Ford Algorithm

Lesson - 36

Your One-Stop Solution for Graphs in Data Structures

Lesson - 37

The Best Guide to Understand and Implement Solutions for Tower of Hanoi Puzzle

Lesson - 38

A Simplified and Complete Guide to Learn Space and Time Complexity

Lesson - 39

All You Need to Know About the Knapsack Problem : Your Complete Guide

Lesson - 40

The Fibonacci Series: Mathematical and Programming Interpretation

Lesson - 41

The Holistic Look at Longest Common Subsequence Problem

Lesson - 42

The Best Article to Understand What Is Dynamic Programming

Lesson - 43

A Guide to Implement Longest Increasing Subsequence Using Dynamic Programming

Lesson - 44

A Holistic Guide to Learn Stop Solution Using Dynamic Programming

Lesson - 45

One Stop Solution to All the Dynamic Programming Problems

Lesson - 46

Understanding the Fundamentals of Binomial Distribution

Lesson - 47

Here’s All You Need to Know About Minimum Spanning Tree in Data Structures

Lesson - 48

Understanding the Difference Between Array and Linked List

Lesson - 49

The Best Article Out There to Understand the B+ Tree in Data Structure

Lesson - 50

A Comprehensive Look at Queue in Data Structure

Lesson - 51

Your One-Stop Solution to Understand Coin Change Problem

Lesson - 52

The Best Way to Understand the Matrix Chain Multiplication Problem

Lesson - 53

Your One-Stop Solution to Learn Floyd-Warshall Algorithm for Using Dynamic Programming

Lesson - 54
The Fibonacci Series: Mathematical and Programming Interpretation

Mathematics is more than just a set of calculations. It was created by observing patterns in the environment around us. The finest illustration of this is the Fibonacci series. It is the sequence of elements that we see in nature all the time. So, in this article, we will discover this Fibonacci Sequence in detail.

What Is Fibonacci Series?

The Fibonacci series is a set of whole numbers in which each number is the sum of two preceding ones, starting from 0 and 1. This sequence, named after an Italian mathematician Leonardo of Pisa, AKA Fibonacci, came into the light when he introduced it to the western world in 1202. 

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The Fibonacci Sequence goes like 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, and so on. While looking at this sequence, it’s difficult to guess what's so intriguing about it. So let us understand through a demonstration why it is interesting to learn about the Fibonacci series. Make different square shapes of the width of these Fibonacci numbers and place them as shown in the image below.


If you join all of these boxes, you will get a subtle spiral shape, as illustrated in the image below:


This shape is called a Fibonacci Spiral, responsible for developing aesthetic terms such as phi or golden ratio. You can find this shape in any natural phenomenon such as flowers, galaxies, falling water, waves, storms, etc.

For example, consider this pattern of Fibonacci spiral in Black Hole.


Moving Forward, we will look into the mathematical formulation of the Fibonacci Sequence.

Mathematical Interpretation of Fibonacci Sequence

As mentioned earlier, the Fibonacci Sequence is a set of numbers in which each number is the sum of the previous two numbers. Now, if we construct a mathematical function using the statement above, you can observe a recurrence relation:

Fib(n) =Fib(n-1) + Fib(n-2)

Let’s understand what this recurrence relation implies with the help of tabular representation for the Fibonacci series:


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Implementation of Fibonacci Sequence Using the C Programming Language

The recurrence relation in mathematics is achieved using a programming paradigm known as recursion. It is a process that occurs when a function calls a copy of itself to work on a smaller problem. The term smaller problem indicates the reduced input size and computational complexity.

Let’s try to understand recursion with the help of an example. Consider the calculation for Fib(5). In order to calculate Fib(5), we will first have to calculate Fib(4) and Fib(3). And for these subproblems, we will again have to perform another set of computations. All the computations required to obtain Fib(5) are represented in the image below:


Let’s look at the C program based on the same recurrence strategy. We are going to use a for loop in this program to print all the Fibonacci numbers computed by Fib() function in a given range. 


int Fib(int num)


   if ( num == 0 )

      return 0;

   else if ( num == 1 )

      return 1;


      return ( Fib(num-1) + Fib(num - 2) );


int main()


   int num;

   printf("How many fibonacci numbers do you want to display on screen? ");


   printf("\nFibonacci numbers in sequence are: ");

   int i = 0;

   for ( int c = 1 ; c <= num ; c++ )


      printf("%d ", Fib(i));



   return 0;



The output console for a Fibonacci program provided user input (num) = 5.


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In this Fibonacci Series article, you learned about the Fibonacci series and its mathematical interpretation. You also discovered some interesting facts about the Fibonacci sequence, like its presence in nature.  And finally, we discussed how recursion is used to implement the Fibonacci sequence. If you are looking for a quick and easy way to learn the Fibonacci, we advise you to watch this video: https://youtu.be/2oBgg_G3Bpk.

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If you have any questions or need clarification on any section of this article on the Fibonacci series, please leave them in the comments section at the bottom of this page; we will respond to them soon.

About the Author

Omkar Prabhakar GhadageOmkar Prabhakar Ghadage

Omkar holds a bachelor's degree in computer science with a machine learning minor. Artificial intelligence and automation are two topics that he's passionate about. Python, R, and C++ are among his programming languages of choice. He enjoys watching web series.

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