HTML vs XHTML: The Best Guide for Learning the Difference

You might not think about it, but every time you open a webpage, you are likely interacting with one of these two languages. HTML stands for Hypertext Markup Language. XHTML stands for Extensible Hypertext Markup Language. Both of these are used to develop web-based and android-based applications. In this article, we will look at the significant differences between HTML and XHTML, and we will discuss the following topics:

  • What is HTML?
  • What is XHTML?
  • HTML vs. XHTML

What is HTML?

HTML is short for Hypertext Markup Language. It is used to create websites and web applications. Let’s break it down, so we understand the name better:

  • Hypertext: Hypertext refers to the “text wrapped within a text.” It is very similar to hyperlinks and contains an underlying text that, when clicked, redirects to a new webpage.
  • Markup language: A markup language is not necessarily a programming language. Instead, it is used to apply formatting and layout to a simple text document. This leads to more interactive and dynamic text content.

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What is XHTML?

  • XHTML stands for Extensible Hypertext Markup Language
  • XHTML is almost similar to HTML but it is stricter than HTML
  • It is swift, accurate, easily maintained, convertible, and formatted
  • All major browsers support XHTML

HTML vs XHTML

The following is a table showing the major differences between HTML and XHTML:

HTML

XHTML

HTML stands for Hypertext Markup Language

XHTML stands for Extensible Hypertext Markup Language

It is an SGML application 

It is an XML application 

Tim Berners-Lee proposed it in 1987

The World Wide Web Consortium recommended it in 2000

HTML is not case sensitive

XHTML is case sensitive

HTML uses a format that is similar  to document formats

XHTML uses markup language

HTML can use open tags, such as<br>

All unclosed tags must be closed in XHTML

HTML is less expressive

XHTML is more expressive as compared to HTML

HTML is not mandatory for a single root element

XHTML documents must contain at least one root element

All content can be included in the body element

All contents must be put in blocks

Attribute values are not significant in HTML

Attribute values are important in XHTML

There is no hard rule on the structure of the elements

The structure of the elements should be followed

HTML requires a lenient HTML-specific parser

XHTML needs to parse with a standard XML parser

The following is an example of an XHTML document:

xhtml

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Conclusion

HTML and XHTML are both markup languages used to create web pages and applications. HTML and XHTML have some key differences that set them apart, but they also share some similarities. XHTML is an extended version of HTML, and both languages are used for developing web and Android-based applications.

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If you have any questions, please feel free to ask them in our comments section, and our experts will answer them promptly. 

About the Author

Aryan GuptaAryan Gupta

Aryan is a tech enthusiast who likes to stay updated about trending technologies of today. He is passionate about all things technology, a keen researcher, and writes to inspire. Aside from technology, he is an active football player and a keen enthusiast of the game.

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