Tutorial Playlist

Machine Learning Tutorial: A Step-by-Step Guide for Beginners

Overview

An Introduction To Machine Learning

Lesson - 1

What is Machine Learning and How Does It Work?

Lesson - 2

The Complete Guide to Understanding Machine Learning Steps

Lesson - 3

Top 10 Machine Learning Applications in 2022

Lesson - 4

An Introduction to the Types Of Machine Learning

Lesson - 5

Supervised and Unsupervised Learning in Machine Learning

Lesson - 6

Everything You Need to Know About Feature Selection

Lesson - 7

Linear Regression in Python

Lesson - 8

Everything You Need to Know About Classification in Machine Learning

Lesson - 9

An Introduction to Logistic Regression in Python

Lesson - 10

Understanding the Difference Between Linear vs. Logistic Regression

Lesson - 11

The Best Guide On How To Implement Decision Tree In Python

Lesson - 12

Random Forest Algorithm

Lesson - 13

Understanding Naive Bayes Classifier

Lesson - 14

The Best Guide to Confusion Matrix

Lesson - 15

How to Leverage KNN Algorithm in Machine Learning?

Lesson - 16

K-Means Clustering Algorithm: Applications, Types, Demos and Use Cases

Lesson - 17

PCA in Machine Learning - Your Complete Guide to Principal Component Analysis

Lesson - 18

What is Cost Function in Machine Learning

Lesson - 19

The Ultimate Guide to Cross-Validation in Machine Learning

Lesson - 20

An Easy Guide to Stock Price Prediction Using Machine Learning

Lesson - 21

What Is Reinforcement Learning? The Best Guide To Reinforcement Learning

Lesson - 22

What Is Q-Learning? The Best Guide to Understand Q-Learning

Lesson - 23

The Best Guide to Regularization in Machine Learning

Lesson - 24

Everything You Need to Know About Bias and Variance

Lesson - 25

The Complete Guide on Overfitting and Underfitting in Machine Learning

Lesson - 26

Mathematics for Machine Learning - Important Skills You Must Possess

Lesson - 27

A One-Stop Guide to Statistics for Machine Learning

Lesson - 28

Embarking on a Machine Learning Career? Here’s All You Need to Know

Lesson - 29

How to Become a Machine Learning Engineer?

Lesson - 30

Top 45 Machine Learning Interview Questions and Answers for 2022

Lesson - 31

Explaining the Concepts of Quantum Computing

Lesson - 32

Supervised Machine Learning: All You Need to Know

Lesson - 33
Everything You Need to Know About Classification in Machine Learning

A common job of machine learning algorithms is to recognize objects and being able to separate them into categories. This process is called classification, and it helps us segregate vast quantities of data into discrete values, i.e. :distinct, like 0/1, True/False, or a pre-defined output label class.

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What is Supervised Learning?

Before we dive into Classification, let’s take a look at what Supervised Learning is. Suppose you are trying to learn a new concept in maths and after solving a problem, you may refer to the solutions to see if you were right or not. Once you are confident in your ability to solve a particular type of problem, you will stop referring to the answers and solve the questions put before you by yourself.

This is also how Supervised Learning works with machine learning models. In Supervised Learning, the model learns by example. Along with our input variable, we also give our model the corresponding correct labels. While training, the model gets to look at which label corresponds to our data and hence can find patterns between our data and those labels.

Some examples of Supervised Learning include:

  1. It classifies spam Detection by teaching a model of what mail is spam and not spam.
  2. Speech recognition where you teach a machine to recognize your voice.
  3. Object Recognition by showing a machine what an object looks like and having it pick that object from among other objects.

We can further divide Supervised Learning into the following:

supervised

  Figure 1: Supervised Learning Subdivisions

What is Classification?

Classification is defined as the process of recognition, understanding, and grouping of objects and ideas into preset categories a.k.a “sub-populations.” With the help of these pre-categorized training datasets, classification in machine learning programs leverage a wide range of algorithms to classify future datasets into respective and relevant categories.

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Classification algorithms used in machine learning utilize input training data for the purpose of predicting the likelihood or probability that the data that follows will fall into one of the predetermined categories. One of the most common applications of classification is for filtering emails into “spam” or “non-spam”, as used by today’s top email service providers.

Read more: Top 10 Machine Learning Algorithms

In short, classification is a form of “pattern recognition,”. Here, classification algorithms applied to the training data find the same pattern (similar number sequences, words or sentiments, and the like) in future data sets.

We will explore classification algorithms in detail, and discover how a text analysis software can perform actions like sentiment analysis - used for categorizing unstructured text by opinion polarity (positive, negative, neutral, and the like). 

classification

                      Figure 2: Classification of vegetables and groceries

What Is The Classification Algorithm?

On the basis of training data, the Classification algorithm is a Supervised Learning technique that is used to categorize new observations. In classification, a program makes use of the dataset or observations that are provided to learn how to categorize fresh observations into various classes or groups. For instance, yes or no, 0 or 1, spam or not spam, cat or dog, etc. Categories, targets, or labels can all be used to describe classes.

Let us discuss Learners in Classification Problems.

Learners in Classification Problems

There are primarily two types of learners in Classification Problems -

  • Eager Learners - Before receiving data for predictions, eager learners build a classification model based on the provided training data. It must be capable of sticking to a single theory that will apply to the entire area. They spend a lot of time practicing and less time making predictions as a result. Example: Artificial neural networks, decision trees, and Naive Bayes.
  • Lazy Learners - The training data is merely stored by lazy learners, who then wait for the testing data to emerge. The most relevant information from the training data that has been stored is used for categorization. Compared to eager learners, they have greater time for a prediction. Case-based reasoning, for example, or k-nearest neighbor.

Now, let us discuss four types of Classification Tasks in Machine Learning.

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4 Types Of Classification Tasks In Machine Learning

Before diving into the four types of Classification Tasks in Machine Learning, let us first discuss Classification Predictive Modeling.

Classification Predictive Modeling

A classification problem in machine learning is one in which a class label is anticipated for a specific example of input data.

Problems with categorization include the following:

  • Give an example and indicate whether it is spam or not.
  • Identify a handwritten character as one of the recognized characters.
  • Determine whether to label the current user behavior as churn.

A training dataset with numerous examples of inputs and outputs is necessary for classification from a modeling standpoint.

A model will determine the optimal way to map samples of input data to certain class labels using the training dataset. The training dataset must therefore contain a large number of samples of each class label and be suitably representative of the problem.

When providing class labels to a modeling algorithm, string values like "spam" or "not spam" must first be converted to numeric values. Label encoding, which is frequently used, assigns a distinct integer to every class label, such as "spam" = 0, "no spam," = 1.

There are numerous varieties of algorithms for classification in modeling problems, including predictive modeling and classification.

It is typically advised that a practitioner undertake controlled tests to determine what algorithm and algorithm configuration produces the greatest performance for a certain classification task because there is no strong theory on how to map algorithms onto issue types.

Based on their output, classification predictive modeling algorithms are assessed. A common statistic for assessing a model's performance based on projected class labels is classification accuracy. Although not perfect, classification accuracy is a reasonable place to start for many classification jobs.

Some tasks may call for a class membership probability prediction for each example rather than class labels. This adds more uncertainty to the prediction, which a user or application can subsequently interpret. The ROC Curve is a well-liked diagnostic for assessing anticipated probabilities.

There are four different types of Classification Tasks in Machine Learning and they are following -

  • Binary Classification
  • Multi-Class Classification
  • Multi-Label Classification
  • Imbalanced Classification

Now, let us look at each of them in detail.

Binary Classification

Those classification jobs with only two class labels are referred to as binary classification.

Examples comprise -

  • Prediction of conversion (buy or not).
  • Churn forecast (churn or not).
  • Detection of spam email (spam or not).

Binary classification problems often require two classes, one representing the normal state and the other representing the aberrant state.

For instance, the normal condition is "not spam," while the abnormal state is "spam." Another illustration is when a task involving a medical test has a normal condition of "cancer not identified" and an abnormal state of "cancer detected."

Class label 0 is given to the class in the normal state, whereas class label 1 is given to the class in the abnormal condition.

A model that forecasts a Bernoulli probability distribution for each case is frequently used to represent a binary classification task.

The discrete probability distribution known as the Bernoulli distribution deals with the situation where an event has a binary result of either 0 or 1. In terms of classification, this indicates that the model forecasts the likelihood that an example would fall within class 1, or the abnormal state.

The following are well-known binary classification algorithms:

  • Logistic Regression
  • Support Vector Machines
  • Simple Bayes
  • Decision Trees

Some algorithms, such as Support Vector Machines and Logistic Regression, were created expressly for binary classification and do not by default support more than two classes.

Let us now discuss Multi-Class Classification.

Multi-Class Classification

Multi-class labels are used in classification tasks referred to as multi-class classification.

Examples comprise -

  • Categorization of faces.
  • Classifying plant species.
  • Character recognition using optical.

The multi-class classification does not have the idea of normal and abnormal outcomes, in contrast to binary classification. Instead, instances are grouped into one of several well-known classes.

In some cases, the number of class labels could be rather high. In a facial recognition system, for instance, a model might predict that a shot belongs to one of thousands or tens of thousands of faces.

Text translation models and other problems involving word prediction could be categorized as a particular case of multi-class classification. Each word in the sequence of words to be predicted requires a multi-class classification, where the vocabulary size determines the number of possible classes that may be predicted and may range from tens of thousands to hundreds of thousands of words.

Multiclass classification tasks are frequently modeled using a model that forecasts a Multinoulli probability distribution for each example.

An event that has a categorical outcome, such as K in 1, 2, 3,..., K, is covered by the Multinoulli distribution, which is a discrete probability distribution. In terms of classification, this implies that the model forecasts the likelihood that a given example will belong to a certain class label.

For multi-class classification, many binary classification techniques are applicable.

The following well-known algorithms can be used for multi-class classification:

  • Progressive Boosting
  • Choice trees
  • Nearest K Neighbors
  • Rough Forest
  • Simple Bayes

Multi-class problems can be solved using algorithms created for binary classification.

In order to do this, a method is known as "one-vs-rest" or "one model for each pair of classes" is used, which includes fitting multiple binary classification models with each class versus all other classes (called one-vs-one).

  • One-vs-One: For each pair of classes, fit a single binary classification model.

The following binary classification algorithms can apply these multi-class classification techniques:

  • One-vs-Rest: Fit a single binary classification model for each class versus all other classes.

The following binary classification algorithms can apply these multi-class classification techniques:

  • Support vector Machine
  • Logistic Regression

Let us now learn about Multi-Label Classification.

Multi-Label Classification

Multi-label classification problems are those that feature two or more class labels and allow for the prediction of one or more class labels for each example.

Think about the photo classification example. Here a model can predict the existence of many known things in a photo, such as “person”, “apple”, "bicycle," etc. A particular photo may have multiple objects in the scene.

This greatly contrasts with multi-class classification and binary classification, which anticipate a single class label for each occurrence.

Multi-label classification problems are frequently modeled using a model that forecasts many outcomes, with each outcome being forecast as a Bernoulli probability distribution. In essence, this approach predicts several binary classifications for each example.

It is not possible to directly apply multi-label classification methods used for multi-class or binary classification. The so-called multi-label versions of the algorithms, which are specialized versions of the conventional classification algorithms, include:

  • Multi-label Gradient Boosting
  • Multi-label Random Forests
  • Multi-label Decision Trees

Another strategy is to forecast the class labels using a different classification algorithm.

Now, we will look into the Imbalanced Classification Task in detail.

Imbalanced Classification

The term "imbalanced classification" describes classification jobs where the distribution of examples within each class is not equal.

A majority of the training dataset's instances belong to the normal class, while a minority belong to the abnormal class, making imbalanced classification tasks binary classification tasks in general.

Examples comprise -

  • Clinical diagnostic procedures
  • Detection of outliers
  • Fraud investigation

Although they could need unique methods, these issues are modeled as binary classification jobs.

By oversampling the minority class or undersampling the majority class, specialized strategies can be employed to alter the sample composition in the training dataset.

Examples comprise -

  • SMOTE Oversampling
  • Random Undersampling

It is possible to utilize specialized modeling techniques, like the cost-sensitive machine learning algorithms, that give the minority class more consideration when fitting the model to the training dataset.

Examples comprise:

  • Cost-sensitive Support Vector Machines
  • Cost-sensitive Decision Trees
  • Cost-sensitive Logistic Regression

Since reporting the classification accuracy may be deceptive, alternate performance indicators may be necessary.

Examples comprise -

  • F-Measure
  • Recall
  • Precision

Now, we will be discussing the types of Machine Learning Classification Algorithms.

Types Of ML Classification Algorithms

A set of data is essentially divided into classes using the supervised learning concept of classification in machine learning. Document categorization, Face Detection, Handwriting Recognition, Speech recognition, etc., are some of the most prevalent classification issues. It can be a multi-class problem as well as a binary classification task. There are numerous machine learning classification algorithms available. Let's examine those machine learning classification algorithms.

Linear Models

There are several types of Machine Learning Classification Algorithms in Linear Models. They are described in detail below.

Logistic Regression

It is a machine learning classification algorithm that makes use of one or more independent variables to decide on a result. The outcome will only have two possible outcomes because the variable being used to quantify it is dichotomous.

Finding the best-fitting relationship between the dependent variable and a set of independent factors is the aim of logistic regression. Since it objectively describes the elements influencing classification, it performs better than other binary classification methods like the nearest neighbor.

Support Vector Machines

One of the most well-liked supervised learning algorithms, Support Vector Machine, or SVM, is used to solve Classification and Regression problems. However, it is largely employed in Machine Learning Classification issues.

The SVM algorithm's objective is to establish the decision boundary or the best line that can divide n-dimensional space into classes, allowing us to quickly classify fresh data points in the future. A hyperplane is a name given to this optimal decision boundary.

SVM selects the extreme vectors and points that aid in the creation of the hyperplane. Support vectors, which are used to represent these extreme instances, form the basis for the SVM method.

Text Categorization, Image Classification, Face identification, etc., may all be done using the SVM method.

Non-linear Models

There are several Non-linear Models explained in detail below.

Kernel SVM

Although it can be used for regression, the Support Vector Machine is a supervised machine learning technique that is primarily used for classification. The key concept is that the algorithm searches for the best hyperplane that may be used to categorize new data points based on the labeled data (training data). The hyperplane is a straight line in two dimensions.

The categorization of a class is typically based on the representative qualities that a learning algorithm learns to reflect the most prevalent traits (what distinguishes one class from another). The SVM operates in the reverse direction. It locates the class samples that are most comparable. The support vectors will be those.

Let's use the two classes of lemons and apples as an illustration.

Other algorithms will pick up on the most obvious, most defining traits of lemons and apples, such as the fact that lemons are yellow and elliptical while apples are green and spherical.

In contrast, SVM will look for lemons that closely resemble apples, such as those that are green and have a spherical shape. It will function as a support vector. An apple that resembles a lemon will serve as the other support vector (yellow and elliptical). As a result, whereas SVM learns similarities, other algorithms learn the differences.

Random Forest Classification

For regression, classification, and other ensemble learning tasks, random forests, and random decision trees, are used. It works by building a large number of decision trees during the training period, and it outputs the class that represents the mean of all the classes, or mean prediction (regression), of all the individual trees.

A random forest is a meta-estimator that employs an average to increase the predicted accuracy of the model by fitting a number of trees to different subsamples of data sets. Although the samples are frequently drawn with replacements, the original input size is always the same as the sub-sample size.

Classification Models

  • Naive Bayes: Naive Bayes is a classification algorithm that assumes that predictors in a dataset are independent. This means that it assumes the features are unrelated to each other. For example, if given a banana, the classifier will see that the fruit is of yellow color, oblong-shaped and long and tapered. All of these features will contribute independently to the probability of it being a banana and are not dependent on each other. Naive Bayes is based on Bayes’ theorem, which is given as:

bayes

Figure 3 : Bayes’ Theorem

         Where :

         P(A | B) = how often happens given that B happens

         P(A) = how likely A will happen

         P(B) = how likely B will happen

         P(B | A) = how often B happens given that A happens

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  • Decision Trees: A Decision Tree is an algorithm that is used to visually represent decision-making. A Decision Tree can be made by asking a yes/no question and splitting the answer to lead to another decision. The question is at the node and it places the resulting decisions below at the leaves. The tree depicted below is used to decide if we can play tennis.

decision

                                            Figure 4: Decision Tree

In the above figure, depending on the weather conditions and the humidity and wind, we can systematically decide if we should play tennis or not. In decision trees, all the False statements lie on the left of the tree and the True statements branch off to the right. Knowing this, we can make a tree which has the features at the nodes and the resulting classes at the leaves.

  • K-Nearest Neighbors: K-Nearest Neighbor is a classification and prediction algorithm that is used to divide data into classes based on the distance between the data points. K-Nearest Neighbor assumes that data points which are close to one another must be similar and hence, the data point to be classified will be grouped with the closest cluster.

data-classified

Figure 5: Data to be classified

k-nearest               

                                       Figure 6: Classification using K-Nearest Neighbours 

Evaluating a Classification Model

After our model is finished, we must assess its performance to determine whether it is a regression or classification model. So, we have the following options for assessing a classification model:

1. Confusion Matrix

  • The confusion matrix describes the model performance and gives us a matrix or table as an output.
  • The error matrix is another name for it.
  • The matrix is made up of the results of the forecasts in a condensed manner, together with the total number of right and wrong guesses. 

The matrix appears in the following table:

Actual Positive

Actual Negative

Predicted Positive

True Positive

False Positive

Predicted Negative

False Negative

True Negative

Accuracy = (TP+TN)/Total Population

2. Log Loss or Cross-Entropy Loss 

  • It is used to assess a classifier's performance, and the output is a probability value between 1 and 0.
  • A successful binary classification model should have a log loss value that is close to 0.
  • If the anticipated value differs from the actual value, the value of log loss rises.
  • The lower log loss shows the model’s higher accuracy.

Cross-entropy for binary classification can be calculated as: 

(ylog(p)+(1?y)log(1?p)) 

Where p = Predicted Output, y = Actual output.

3. AUC-ROC Curve

  • AUC is for Area Under the Curve, and ROC refers to Receiver Operating Characteristics Curve.
  • It is a graph that displays the classification model's performance at various thresholds.
  • The AUC-ROC Curve is used to show how well the multi-class classification model performs.
  • The TPR and FPR are used to draw the ROC curve, with the True Positive Rate (TPR) on the Y-axis and the FPR (False Positive Rate) on the X-axis.

Now, let us discuss the use cases of Classification Algorithms.

Use Cases Of Classification Algorithms

Different situations call for the usage of classification methods. Here are a few frequent applications for classification algorithms:

  • Drugs Classification
  • Email Spam Detection
  • Identifications of Cancer tumor cells
  • Biometric Identification, etc
  • Speech Recognition

Let us learn about Classifier Evaluation now.

Classifier Evaluation

The evaluation to verify a classifier's accuracy and effectiveness is the most crucial step after it is finished. We can evaluate a classifier in a variety of ways. Let's look at these techniques that are stated below, beginning with Cross-Validation.

Cross-Validation

The most prominent issue with most machine learning models is over-fitting. It is possible to check the model's overfitting with K-fold cross-validation.

With this technique, the data set is randomly divided into k equal-sized, mutually exclusive subsets. One is retained for testing, while the others are utilized for training the model. For each of the k folds, the same procedure is followed.

Holdout Method

This is the approach used the most frequently to assess classifiers. According to this method, the given data set is split into a test set and a train set, each comprising 20% and 80% of the total data.

The unseen test set is used to evaluate the data's prediction ability after it has been trained using the train set.

ROC Curve

For a visual comparison of classification models, the ROC curve, also known as receiver operating characteristics, is utilized. It illustrates the correlation between the false positive rate and the true positive rate. The accuracy of the model is determined by the area under the ROC curve.

Bias and Variance

Bias is the difference between our actual and predicted values. Bias is the simple assumptions that our model makes about our data to be able to predict on new data. It directly corresponds to the patterns found in our data. When the Bias is high, assumptions made by our model are too basic, the model can’t capture the important features of our data, this is called underfitting.

7-bias

                                                   Figure 7: Bias

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We can define variance as the model’s sensitivity to fluctuations in the data. Our model may learn from noise. This will cause our model to consider trivial features as important. When the Variance is high, our model will capture all the features of the data given to it, will tune itself to the data, and predict on it very well but new data may not have the exact same features and the model won’t be able to predict on it very well. We call this Overfitting.

variance

                                                Figure 8: Example of Variance 

Precision and Recall  

Precision is used to calculate the model's ability to classify values correctly. It is given by dividing the number of correctly classified data points by the total number of classified data points for that class label.                          

Where :

TP = True Positives, when our model correctly classifies the data point to the class it belongs to.

FP = False Positives, when the model falsely classifies the data point.

Recall is used to calculate the ability of the mode to predict positive values. But, "How often does the model predict the correct positive values?". This is calculated by the ratio of true positives and the total number of actual positive values.    

Now, let us look at Algorithm Selection.

Algorithm Selection

In addition to the strategy described above, we may apply the procedures listed below to choose the optimum algorithm for the model.

  • Read the information.
  • Based on our independent and dependent features, and create dependent and independent data sets.
  • Create training and test sets for the data.
  • Utilize many algorithms to train the model, including SVM, Decision Tree, KNN, etc.
  • Consider the classifier.
  • Decide on the most accurate classifier.

Accuracy is the greatest path ahead to making your model efficient, even though it could take longer than necessary to select the optimum algorithm for your model.                              

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Conclusion

In this article - Everything you need to know about Classification in Machine learning, we have taken a look at what Supervised Learning is, and its sub-branch Classification, and also learned about some of the classification models which are commonly used and how to predict the accuracy of those models and see if they are trained perfectly. Hopefully, you now know everything you need about Classification! 

Was this article on Classification useful to you? Do you have any doubts or questions for us? Mention them in this article's comments section, and we'll have our experts answer them for you at the earliest! 

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