CCBA Techniques Tutorial

9.1 Business Analysis Techniques

Hello and welcome to lesson 9 of Certification of Competency in Business AnalysisTM or CCBA® (pronounce as C-C-B-A) Certification course offered by Simplilearn. In the previous lessons, we discussed the business analysis tasks in all knowledge areas and competencies. Lesson 9 is a summary of the most common techniques used in business analysis. We will begin by discussing the objectives of this lesson in the next slide.

9.2 Objectives

After completing this lesson, you will be able to: Explain the fundamental techniques employed by a business analyst. State the major technique types. Define each technique type. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of each technique. In the next slide we will have an introduction to techniques.

9.3 Introduction to Techniques

The techniques discussed in this lesson are a high-level overview of the techniques referenced in the Knowledge Areas of the BABOK®. These techniques alter the way a business analysis task is performed or describe a specific form the output of a task may take. We will be reviewing each technique and its advantages and disadvantages. Please note that this is not a complete list of every business analysis technique. In the next slide we will discuss acceptance and evaluation criteria.

9.4 Acceptance and Evaluation Criteria Definition

Purpose: To define the requirements that must be met in order for a solution to be considered acceptable to key stakeholders. The advantages of this technique are: Agile methodologies may need all requirements to be expressed in the form of testable acceptance criteria. Acceptance criteria are also necessary when the requirements express contractual obligations. The disadvantages of this technique are: Acceptance and evaluation criteria may express contractual obligations and it may be difficult to change for legal or political reasons. Let us discuss benchmarking in the next slide.

9.5 Benchmarking

Purpose: Benchmark studies are performed to compare the strengths and weaknesses of an organization against its peers and competitors. The advantages of this technique are: Benchmarking provides organizations with information about new and different methods, ideas, and tools to improve organizational performance. The disadvantages of this technique are: Benchmarking is time consuming. In addition, organizations may not have the expertise to conduct the analysis and acquire or interpret useful competitive information. Since it involves assessing solutions that have been shown to work elsewhere with the goal of reproducing them, benchmarking cannot produce innovative solutions or solutions that will produce a sustainable competitive advantage. Let us discuss brainstorming in the next slide.

9.6 Brainstorming

Purpose: Brainstorming is an excellent way to foster creative thinking about a problem. The aim of brainstorming is to produce numerous new ideas and to derive from them themes for further analysis. The advantages of this technique are: It has the ability to elicit ideas in a short period. Non-judgmental environment enables creative thinking. It can be useful during a workshop to reduce tension between participants. The disadvantages of this technique are: It is dependent on participants’ creativity and willingness to contribute. Organizational and interpersonal politics may limit participation. Group participants must agree to ideas raised during brainstorming to avoid debate. Let us discuss business rules analysis in the next slide.

9.7 Business Rules Analysis

Purpose: To define the rules that govern decisions in an organization and that define, constrain, or enable organizational operations. The advantages of this technique are: Clearly defining and structuring rules allow organizations to make changes to policy without altering processes. The impact of changes in business rules can be assessed more easily when they are documented separately from the processes they detail or the means used to enforce the rules. The disadvantages of this technique are: Organizations may produce lengthy lists of business rules. Business rules can contradict one another or produce unanticipated results when combined. It may also be important to question existing business rules for continuing relevance to current and projected modes of organizational operations and structure. In the next slide we will discuss data dictionary and glossary.

9.8 Data Dictionary and Glossary

Purpose: A data dictionary or glossary defines key terms and data relevant to a business domain. The advantages of this technique are: A data dictionary or glossary is useful for ensuring that all stakeholders are in agreement on the format and content of relevant information. Capturing these definitions in a single model ensures that these terms will be used consistently. This technique does not have any disadvantage. In the next slide we will discuss data flow diagrams.

9.9 Data Flow Diagrams

Purpose: To show how information is input, processed, stored, and output from a system. Data Flow Diagrams are used as part of a structured analysis approach. They are used to get an understanding of the range of data within the domain. They are typically used after a context diagram has been completed and as a prerequisite or concurrent activity to data modeling. The advantages of this technique are: May be used as a discovery technique for processes and data, or as a technique for verification of a Functional Decomposition 9.12 (read as: nine-point-one-two) or Data Model 9.7 (read as: nine-point-seven) that have already been completed. Most users find these diagrams quite easy to understand. It is generally considered a useful analysis deliverable to developers in a structured programming environment. The disadvantages of this technique are: Data flow diagrams cannot easily show who is responsible for performing the work. They cannot show alternative paths through the same process. Let us discuss data modeling in the next slide.

9.10 Data Modeling

Purpose: To describe the concepts relevant to a domain, the relationships between those concepts, and information associated with them. The advantages of this technique are: Data models offer the flexibility of different levels of description. They provide a consistent modeling approach that supports the transition through planning, analysis, design and implementation. Since they have a strong basis in mathematical concepts, data models are supported by rigorous rules for correctness and completeness. This encourages accuracy in the development of the models. The disadvantages of this technique are: Data models can be complex, and they deal with concepts that may be unfamiliar to people without a background in Information Technology. If not properly presented, they can be difficult for users to understand and relate to. Terms and definitions may vary in use in different organizational units or domains. Let us discuss decision analysis in the next slide.

9.11 Decision Analysis

Purpose: To support decision-making when dealing with complex, difficult, or uncertain situations. The advantages of this technique are: Decision analysis provides an effective technique to determine the expected value of an alternative scenario to the organization. Using consistent financial justification techniques in all business cases provides decision makers with quantitative measures based on which project investment decisions are made. Decision analysis may force stakeholders to honestly assess the importance they place on different alternatives. The disadvantages of this technique are: Decision analysis requires specialized knowledge and skills, including mathematical knowledge, an understanding of probability, and similar concepts. The results of decision analysis may be treated as more certain than they actually are, if decision-makers do not understand the limitations of the model and the assumptions behind it. Decision-makers may be reluctant to revisit decisions, even when more information is available on areas of uncertainty that might change the optimal decision. Let us discuss document analysis in the next slide.

9.12 Document Analysis

Purpose: Document analysis is a means to elicit requirements, by studying available documentation on existing and comparable solutions, and identifying relevant information. The advantages of this technique are: No need to work from scratch.. Leveraging existing materials to discover and/or (read as: and-or) confirm requirements. It is a means to cross-check requirements from other elicitation techniques such as interviews, job shadowing, surveys or focus groups. The disadvantages of this technique are: Limited to “as-is” perspective. Existing documentation may not be up-to-date or valid. Can be a time-consuming and even tedious process to locate the relevant information. Let us discuss estimation in the next slide.

9.13 Estimation

Purpose: Estimating techniques forecast the cost and effort involved in pursuing a course of action. The advantages of this technique are: Estimates can help stakeholders make better decisions based on an improved understanding of the likely outcomes from an initiative. The disadvantages of this technique are: Stakeholders frequently treat estimates as commitments, and expect that once an estimate is given, the solution team will meet the time and cost estimate. Estimates are often consciously or unconsciously altered to match the desires of influential stakeholders because the estimators or others are concerned that higher estimates would cause a project to be rejected or be seen as demonstrating lack of commitment. Let us discuss focus groups in the next slide.

9.14 Focus Groups

Purpose: A focus group is a means to elicit ideas and attitudes about a specific product, service or opportunity in an interactive group environment. The participants share their impressions, preferences, and needs, guided by a moderator. The advantages of this technique are: Elicitation of data from a group of people in a single session saves time and cost as compared to conducting individual interviews with the same number of people. Effective for learning people’s attitudes, experiences and desires. Active discussion and the ability to ask others questions creates an environment where participants can consider their personal view in relation to other perspectives. The disadvantages of this technique are: In the group setting, participants may be concerned about issues of trust or may be unwilling to discuss sensitive or personal topics. Data collected or what people say may not be consistent with how people actually behave. If the group is homogeneous, their responses may not represent the complete set of requirements. A skilled moderator is needed to manage group interactions and discussions. It may be difficult to schedule the group for the same date and time. If the goal of the focus group is to elicit ideas on a new or changing product, a focus group is not an effective way to evaluate usability. Let us discuss functional decomposition in the next slide.

9.15 Functional Decomposition

Purpose: To decompose processes, functional areas, or deliverables into their component parts and allow each part to be analyzed independently. The advantages of this technique are: It creates a conceptual model of the work that needs to be completed to deliver the new business solution. It provides all stakeholders with a consistent view of the scope of the effort. Assists in estimation by breaking the whole task into smaller more understandable pieces. The disadvantages of this technique are: There is no way to be certain that all components have been captured. Decomposing a problem without fully understanding the relationship between pieces of the problem may create an inappropriate structure that impedes analysis. Let us discuss interface analysis in the next slide.

9.16 Interface Analysis

Purpose: To identify interfaces between solutions and/or (read as: and-or) solution components and define requirements that describe how they will interact. The advantages of this technique are: Prior identification of interfaces provides an early and high-level view of interoperability for planning: Impact on delivery date. Knowing what interfaces are needed, as well as their anticipated complexity and testing needs enables more accurate project planning and potential savings in time and cost. Collaboration with other systems or projects. If the interface is to an existing system, product or device and the interface already exists, it may not be changed easily. If the interface is new, then the ownership, development, and testing of the interface need to be addressed for both applications. In this case, eliciting and analyzing the interface requirements will likely require negotiation and cooperation between those responsible for both applications. Specification of the interfaces should prevent difficulties in integrating multiple components. The disadvantages of this technique are: Does not provide insight into other aspects of the solution since the analysis does not assess the internal components. Let us discuss interviews in the next slide.

9.17 Interviews

Purpose: An interview is a systematic approach designed to elicit information from a person or group of people in an informal or formal setting by talking to an interviewee, asking relevant questions and documenting the responses. The advantages of this technique are: It encourages participation and establishes rapport with the stakeholder. It is a simple, direct technique that can be used in varying situations. It allows the interviewer and participant to have full discussions and explanations of the questions and answers. It enables observations of non-verbal behavior. The interviewer can ask follow-up and probing questions to confirm their own understanding. It maintains focus through the use of clear objectives for the interview that are agreed upon by all participants and can be met in the time allotted. It allows interviewees to express opinions in private, which they may be reluctant to express in public. The disadvantages of this technique are: Interviews are not an ideal means of reaching consensus across a group of stakeholders. It requires considerable commitment and involvement of the participants. Training is required to conduct effective interviews. In particular, unstructured interviews require special skills including facilitation/virtual facilitation and active listening. Depth of follow-on questions may be dependent on the interviewer’s knowledge of the business domain. Transcription and analysis of interview data can be complex and expensive. It is based on the level of clarity provided during the interview; the resulting documentation may be subject to interviewer’s interpretation. There is a risk of unintentionally leading the interviewee. Let us discuss lessons learned process in the next slide.

9.18 Lessons Learned Process

Purpose: This process helps to compile and document successes, opportunities for improvement, failures, and recommendations for improving the performance of future projects or project phases. The advantages of this technique are: It is useful for identifying opportunities for process improvement. It can help build team morale after a difficult period. The disadvantages of this technique are: All participants must be prepared to avoid any urge to assign blame during these sessions or honest discussion may not occur. Participants may be reluctant to document and discuss problems. There are risks of it becoming a “gripe” session and improvement opportunities may be neglected. Let us discuss metrics and key performance indicators in the next slide.

9.19 Metrics and Key Performance Indicators

Purpose: Purpose of metrics and key performance indicators is to measure the performance of solutions, solution components, and other matters of interest to stakeholders. The advantages of this technique are: Establishing a monitoring and evaluation system allows stakeholders to understand the extent to which a solution meets an objective and how effective the inputs and activities of developing the solution output were. Indicators, metrics and reporting also facilitate organizational alignment, linking goals to objectives, supporting solutions, underlying tasks, and resources. The disadvantages of this technique are: Gathering excessive amounts of data beyond what is needed will result in unnecessary expense in collecting, analyzing, and reporting. It will also distract project members from other responsibilities. On agile projects, this will be particularly relevant. A bureaucratic metrics program fails from collecting too much data and not generating useful reports that will allow timely responsive action. Those charged with collecting metric data must be given feedback to understand how their actions are affecting the quality of the project results. When metrics are used to assess performance, the individuals being measured are likely to act to increase their performance on those metrics, even if this causes suboptimal performance on other activities. Let us discuss non-functional requirements analysis in the next slide.

9.20 Non functional Requirements Analysis

Purpose: Purpose of non-functional requirements is to describe the required qualities of a system, such as its usability and performance characteristics. These supplement the documentation of functional requirements, which describe the behavior of the system. The advantages of this technique are: Success in meeting non-functional requirements will have a strong influence on whether or not a system is accepted by its users. The disadvantages of this technique are: Non-functional requirements are often more difficult to define than functional requirements. Expectations regarding quality attributes may not be described and users of an application may find them difficult to articulate. Overly stringent non-functional requirements may significantly impact the cost of developing a software application. Let us discuss observation in the next slide.

9.21 Observation

Purpose: Observation is a means of eliciting requirements by conducting an assessment of the stakeholder’s work environment. This technique is appropriate when documenting details about current processes or if the project is intended to enhance or change a current process. The advantages of this technique are: Provides realistic and practical insight into the business by providing a hands-on feel for how the business process works today. Elicits details of informal communication and ways people actually work around the system that may not be documented anywhere. The disadvantages of this technique are: It is possible only for existing processes. It could be time-consuming. It may be disruptive to the person being shadowed. Unusual exceptions and critical situations that happen infrequently may not occur during the observation. It may not well work if the current process involves work that is not easily observable. Let us discuss organization modeling in the next slide.

9.22 Organization Modeling

Purpose: Organization modeling is used to describe the roles, responsibilities and reporting structures that exist within an organization and to align those structures with the organization’s goals. The advantages of this technique are: Organizational models are one of the few types of models any organization is almost certain to have defined. Even the simplest organization has to define the reporting structures among team members in order to co-ordinate work between its people. The disadvantages of this technique are: The primary limitation of organization modeling is not the technique itself, but rather the implications of including organizational redesign in the scope of a project. Organizational redesigns are likely to be highly contentious and require significant executive support in order to be successful. A secondary problem is that informal lines of authority and communication that are not reflected in the organization chart are almost certain to exist within the organization. Let us discuss problem tracking in the next slide.

9.23 Problem Tracking

Purpose: Problem tracking provides an organized approach to tracking, management, and resolution of defects, issues, problems, and risks throughout the business analysis activities. Management of issues is important so that they can be resolved in a timely manner to ensure success. The advantages of this technique are: Problem tracking provides an organized method for tracking and resolving risks, issues, and defects. It provides a mechanism to communicate problems across the team and helps to maintain focus on open problems until they are resolved. The regular review of the problems together with the team also helps to maintain focus and ensure resolution. The disadvantages: In the following situations, it may be challenging to use the technique: If regular prioritization and management of problems is not done, the list becomes outdated and irrelevant. If key team members are not available on a regular basis to discuss the lists of problems and to determine actions to be taken, then the progress in resolving them may become very slow to non-existent. If there is a strict deadline to deliver the solution, then problem management may become a lower priority. Often, root cause analysis of the problems can take more time and resources than what are available. Let us discuss process modeling in the next slide.

9.24 Process Modeling

Purpose: To understand how work that involves multiple roles and departments is performed within an organization. The advantages of this technique are: Most stakeholders are comfortable with the basic elements of and concepts behind a process model. Process models are effective at showing how to handle a large number of scenarios and parallel branches. Process models are likely to have value in their own right, as they will be re-used by business stakeholders for training and co-ordination of activities. The disadvantages of this technique are: Process models can become extremely complex and unwieldy if not structured carefully. Complex processes may involve enough activities and roles to make them almost impossible for a single individual to understand. Problems in a process cannot always be identified by looking at the model. It is usually necessary to engage stakeholders directly to find problems they have encountered while working with a process. Let us discuss prototyping in the next slide.

9.25 Prototyping

Purpose: Prototyping details user interface requirements and integrates them with other requirements such as use cases, scenarios, data, and business rules. Stakeholders often find prototyping to be a concrete means of identifying, describing and validating their interface needs. The advantages of this technique are: It supports users who are more comfortable and effective at articulating their needs by using pictures, as prototyping lets them “see” the future system’s interface. A prototype allows for early user interaction and feedback. A throw-away prototype can be an inexpensive means to quickly uncover and confirm a variety of requirements that go beyond just the interface such as processes, data, and business rules. A vertical prototype can demonstrate what is feasible with existing technology, and where there may be technology gaps. An evolutionary/ functional prototype provides a vehicle for designers and developers to learn about the users’ interface needs and to evolve system requirements. The disadvantages of this technique are: Depending on the complexity of the target system, using prototyping to elicit requirements can take considerable time if the process gets bogged down by the “how’s” rather than “what’s”. Assumptions about the underlying technology may need to be made in order to initiate prototyping. A prototype may lead users to develop unrealistic expectations regarding the delivered system’s performance, completion date, reliability, and usability characteristics. This is because an elaborated, detailed prototype can look a lot like a functional system. Users may focus on the design specifications of the solution rather than the requirements that any solution must address. This can, in turn, constrain the solution design. Developers may believe that they must provide a user interface that precisely matches the prototype, even if superior technology and interface approaches exist. Let us discuss requirements workshops in the next slide.

9.26 Requirements Workshops

Purpose: A requirements workshop is a structured way to capture requirements. A workshop may be used to scope, discover, define, prioritize, and reach closure on requirements for the target system. Well-run workshops are considered one of the most effective ways to deliver high quality requirements quickly. They can promote trust, mutual understanding, and strong communications among the project stakeholders and project team and produce deliverables that structure and guide future analysis. The advantages of this technique are: A requirements workshop can be a means to elicit detailed requirements in a relatively short period of time. A requirements workshop provides a means for stakeholders to collaborate, make decisions and gain a mutual understanding of requirements. Requirements workshop costs are often lower than the cost of performing multiple interviews. A requirements workshop enables the participants to work together to reach consensus. This can be a cheaper and faster approach than doing serial requirements interviews, as interviews may yield conflicting requirements and the effort needed to resolve those conflicts across all interviewees can be very costly. Feedback is immediate. The facilitator’s interpretation of requirements is provided immediately to the stakeholders and validated. The disadvantages of this technique are: Stakeholder availability may make it difficult to schedule the requirements workshop. The success of the requirements workshop is highly dependent on the expertise of the facilitator and knowledge of the participants. Requirements workshops that involve too many participants can slow down the workshop process. Conversely, collecting input from too few participants can lead to overlooking requirements that are important to users or to specifying requirements that don’t represent the needs of majority of the users. Let us discuss risk analysis in the next slide.

9.27 Risk Analysis

Purpose: To identify and manage areas of uncertainty that can impact an initiative, solution, or organization. The advantages of this technique are: Risk analysis enables an organization to prepare for the likelihood that at least some things will not go as planned. The disadvantages of this technique are: The number of possible risks to most initiatives can easily become unmanageably large. It may only be possible to manage a subset of potential risks. As risks are inherently uncertain, it may prove difficult to usefully estimate the impact of the risks. Let us discuss root cause analysis in the next slide.

9.28 Root Cause Analysis

Purpose: Purpose of root cause analysis is to determine the underlying source of a problem. The advantages of this technique are: Root cause analysis provides a structured method to identify the root causes of identified problems, thus ensuring a complete understanding of the problem under review. The disadvantages of this technique are: Root cause analysis works best only when someone who has formal training or extensive experience facilitates a team of experts. The primary concern revolves around the ability of the facilitator to remain objective, a critical element to effective root cause analysis. Let us discuss scenarios and use cases in the next slide.

9.29 Scenarios and Use Cases

Purpose: Written to describe how an actor interacts with a solution to accomplish one or more of that actor’s goals. The advantages of this technique are: Use cases are good at clarifying scope and providing a high-level understanding of user behavioral goals, normal situations, alternatives, or exception paths through an activity or business process. The disadvantages of this technique are: Business analysts are frequently tempted to describe most or all system behavior using use cases. Since many requirements can be captured in the use case format, there is frequently a temptation to use them to capture all requirements, even in situations where it is difficult to apply them or where another analysis method might prove more effective. Use cases do not have any features to support integration or the discovery of common elements, which is one of the reasons they are usually written at the highest-level of abstraction that is appropriate. Additional analysis and design is usually required after use case definition is complete to identify these common elements. Let us discuss scope modeling in the next slide.

9.30 Scope Modeling

Purpose: Scope models are used to describe the scope of analysis or the scope of a solution. The advantages of this technique are: A scope model will make it easier to determine what should be in and out of scope for a solution, even when new requirements are identified or requirements change. The disadvantages of this technique are: A scope model will usually leave much of the detailed scope to still be investigated and detailed. Let us discuss sequence diagrams in the next slide.

9.31 Sequence Diagrams

Purpose: Sequence diagrams are used to model the logic of usage scenarios, by showing the information passed between objects in the system through the execution of the scenario. The advantages of this technique are: The sequence diagram may be used in object-oriented analysis to validate class diagrams (described in 9.7) against use cases (9.26), or to show the timing of interactions between entities within the system scope. The disadvantages of this technique are: A sequence diagram must be defined for each possible scenario. Strictly speaking, a sequence diagram requires a fully defined class model, refer Data Model, although less-formal sequence diagrams are often developed representing user interface elements or interactions between actors. Let us discuss state diagrams in the next slide.

9.32 State Diagrams

Purpose: A state diagram shows how the behavior of a concept, entity or object changes in response to events. The advantages of this technique are: Domain SMEs should be well aware of life cycle states for their key concerns. Helping them list and describe the states and then draw the allowable transitions between states often uncovers missing data, control, and behavioral requirements and may be helpful to clarify confusing or even conflicting requirements. The disadvantages of this technique are: Since domain SMEs can understand and develop state diagrams very quickly, it is important not to unintentionally expand the scope. Each state, and associated transitions, should be validated to determine if it is relevant to the solution scope. There may be actual states an object goes through as part of its life cycle that do not have relevance to the domain. These states should not be modeled. Let us discuss structured walkthrough in the next slide.

9.33 Structured Walkthrough

Purpose: Structured walkthroughs are performed to communicate, verify, and validate requirements. The advantages of this technique are: It promotes discussion of the requirements among stakeholders. It is effective at identifying possible ambiguities and areas of misunderstanding. The disadvantages of this technique are: Review sessions can lead to repeated revisions if changes are not carefully managed. The length of the revision and review cycle can result in a lengthy approval process. Let us discuss survey/questionnaire in the next slide.

9.34 Survey Questionnaire

Purpose: A survey is a means of eliciting information from many people, sometimes anonymously, in a relatively short period of time. A survey can collect information about customers, products, work practices, and attitudes. A survey may also be referred to as a questionnaire. The advantages of this technique are: When using closed-ended questions, surveys can be effective for obtaining quantitative data for use in statistical analysis. When using open-ended questions, survey results may yield insights and opinions not easily obtainable through other elicitation techniques. A survey does not typically require significant time from the responders. It is effective and efficient when stakeholders are not located in one location. It may result in a large number of responses. It is quick and relatively inexpensive to administer. The disadvantages of this technique are: Use of open-ended questions requires more analysis. To achieve unbiased results, specialized skills in statistical sampling methods are needed when the decision has been made to survey a subset of potential respondents. Some questions may be left unanswered or answered incorrectly due to their ambiguous nature. May require follow up questions or more survey iterations depending on the answers provided. It is not well suited for collecting information on actual behavior. The response rates for surveys are often too low for statistical significance. The use of incentives or enforcement means may be used to alleviate this. Let us discuss SWOT analysis in the next slide.

9.35 SWOT Analysis

A SWOT analysis is a valuable tool to quickly analyze various aspects of the current state of the business process undergoing change. The advantages of this technique are: The SWOT analysis helps quickly analyze various aspects of the current state of the organization and its environment prior to identifying potential solution options. The disadvantages of this technique are: The SWOT analysis is a very high-level view; more detailed analysis is almost always needed. Let us discuss user stories in the next slide.

9.36 User Stories

Purpose: User Stories are a brief description of functionality that users need from a solution to meet a business objective. The advantages of this technique are: User stories create an environment of customer ownership of features and prioritizations in an incremental, iterative development environment. They may eliminate the need to provide functional requirements in some environments. User stories also require that the value delivered by the story be clearly articulated. The disadvantages of this technique are: It may not be the best technique for some environments with regulatory restrictions or when an organization mandates documentation. This modeling technique may not be effective when participants are not co-located. This technique does not explicitly address how to document non-functional requirements. Let us discuss vendor assessment in the next slide.

9.37 Vendor Assessment

Purpose: To assess the ability of a potential vendor to meet commitments regarding a product or service. The advantages of this technique are: An effective vendor assessment reduces the risk of the organization developing a relationship with an unsuitable vendor and is likely to improve long-term satisfaction with the decision. The disadvantages of this technique are: It can be time-consuming to gather sufficient information on multiple vendors. Some information may not be readily available. Vendors with new and innovative products may score poorly because they do not have a significant history in the market. The following is a quiz section, to check your understanding of the concepts covered in this lesson.

9.39 Summary

In this lesson we learned that: There are many fundamental techniques employed by a business analyst. We learned what the major technique types are and that each technique type has a standard definition, advantages, and disadvantages.

9.40 Thank you

We have now completed the module on business analysis techniques. With this, we have completed the CCBA course. Thank you and happy learning.

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  • PMP, PMI, PMBOK, CAPM, PgMP, PfMP, ACP, PBA, RMP, SP, and OPM3 are registered marks of the Project Management Institute, Inc.

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