Questions

Correct Answers

%Correct Answers

**Explanation:**
Option d may or may not be true; this is a distractor choice. Options a, b, and c are true statements. However, the principal reason behind multi-vari charting is to breakdown the variation into components such as positional, cyclical, and temporal so that improvements can be made. So option c is correct.

**Explanation:**
A practitioner may decide to sample or a team may decide to do it. Sampling, even at the best of times, is considered risky. But the risk factor can be alleviated using the proper technique. At all times though, people opt for sample because they wish to save time and money. Option b is the correct answer.

**Explanation:**
All the activities suggested here are typically done with employees of a company. This indicates the customer base is internal. So, c is correct.

**Explanation:**
Identification of root cause means you have been able to assign a cause to the cause of variation. It also means that you have been able to identify Assignable causes of variation, as common causes are untraceable to their causes. Option a is correct.

**Explanation:**
Written Instructions are considered the easiest to comprehend by employees, so option a is the correct answer.

**Explanation:**
The idea of the question is to distinguish between the answer choices in some manner. Out of the four answer choices, there is one broad scope or strategic goal and three detailed or tactical department goals listed. The strategic goal is answer option a. The other three options are tactical. Thus, option a is the correct answer.

**Explanation:**
Please note that a negative response is requested. All the answer choices are reasons for using a throughput yield to help analyze a possible problem with the exception of answer choice c . This is a distractor answer that does not apply to this question. So option c is the correct choice.

**Explanation:**
Total Opportunities = 5000
Total Defects = 100
Defects/Opportunities = 100/5000
Defects/Million Opportunities = 100/5000*10,00,000 = 20,000
Sigma levels using table is approximately 3.6.
Substitute 3.6 in RTY table, and the answer is 98% .

**Explanation:**
Lean philosophy is to provide perfect value to the customer through a perfect value creation process that has zero waste, while cost reduction is not the main focus on Lean

**Explanation:**
Although CLT states in one of its clauses that sample mean = population mean, it cannot be said with a degree of confidence at all times. Option b and d are not serious considerations. Thus option c is correct.

**Explanation:**
The Affinity Diagram is designed to invoke creative thinking and organize qualitative information into related topics. It is the easiest and least complex modern quality tool to begin the problem solving journey.

**Explanation:**
Focus groups is considered the most efficient and a good technique to collect data. Thus c is correct. Other options are not serious considerations.

**Explanation:**
Options a and b are definitely acceptable reasons. Internal problems could be decoded as employee related issues, which may impact end customer quality. Thus the only possible correct option is conceptually improving the design, which is a typical DFSS case.

**Explanation:**
Option A is the only correct answer choice. The Sum Square of Error or SSE is a combination of Sum Square of Pure Error and Sum Square of Lack of Fit. If the model was perfect, which means no lack of fit, only Pure Error would contribute to SSE.

**Explanation:**
For hypothesis testing if the p value is smaller than the significance level the null hypothesis is rejected

**Explanation:**
If the system is processing more than what the customer needs, this would cause unnecessary waste.

**Explanation:**
The two types of variations are chance and assignable. Chance variation is also referred to as normal or random (among others). Assignable variation is also called special or non-normal. So answer c is correct.

**Explanation:**
There are normally a series of root causes stemming from one problem, and they can be visualized in cause and effect manner using Cause-and-Effect diagram. This was developed by Ishikawa and also called as Ishikawa diagram.

**Explanation:**
Paired t test is the only test that works on related groups. Option c is the correct answer.

**Explanation:**
Standard deviation is always referred to as difference from the mean. Thus Mean is the right answer.

**Explanation:**
IDOV is a popular DFSS approach, in which the stage is Identify. Thus b is the correct option.

**Explanation:**
An X-bar and R chart is represented best by variables data. Options a and b list attribute data quantities. The two values in option d are measures of dispersion and are not used together in control charting. So option c is correct.

**Explanation:**
Process defines the values/culture within any organization.

**Explanation:**
Repetition helps in determining short term variability and Replication helps with long term variability.

**Explanation:**
Answer option a is a distractor choice. If done by hand, the remaining three choices are listed in order of complexity and accuracy. So option d is correct.

**Explanation:**
The word kaizen means "continuous improvement." It is a system of continuous improvement in quality, technology, processes, company culture, productivity, safety, and leadership. It comes from the Japanese words ("kai") which means "change" or "to correct" and ("zen") which means "good."

**Explanation:**
Since internal failure cost and external failure cost are integral part of the total failure cost, option c is the correct answer.

**Explanation:**
Options a and d are distractors. Answer option c may or may not be true, but even if it is true, it doesn't address the question. Option b is correct.

**Explanation:**
Japanese 5S methodology was created and used for organizing, cleaning, developing, and sustaining a productive work environment.

**Explanation:**
OEE stands for Overall Equipment Effectiveness.

**Explanation:**
The translating of customer wants into engineering specifications with a priority (or strength) value is performed in the relationship matrix. So option d is correct.

**Explanation:**
Having two variables that are highly correlated in the experimental model will make it difficult or impossible to detect which factor really affects the response. This condition is called collinearity. The correct answer is option a.

**Explanation:**
Note that a negative response is requested. Control charts aren't applicable to this situation. Normal probability and dot plots are widely used. Histograms can be used in some cases. So answer a is the correct choice.

**Explanation:**
A design alias implies that the two factor effects are confused or confounded with each other. So option a is correct.

**Explanation:**
The only time the process is said to be in control is when the common causes of variation contribute to the variability of the process. Option c is the correct answer.

**Explanation:**
In this case, half fractional factorial is conducted.

**Explanation:**
By conducting replication in an experiment, you can eliminate the errors due to environmental factors and thus option a is the correct answer.

**Explanation:**
The acceptability criteria states that a combined R&R value of less than 10% is considered acceptable. Between 10% and 30% is considered marginal (good but suitable to improvement) and over 30% is considered to be not acceptable. In this case, there is no need to separate repeatability and reproducibility because the combined R&R value is well under 10%. Thus, neither component should be a problem. So answer a is correct.

**Explanation:**
An underlying assumption in any analysis of variance of means that homogeneity of variance applies to the variation within each factor (treatment). Statistical tests exist to test this homogeneity, but in ANOVA, the assumption is that the natural variation within each factor is the same. Answer option a is correct.

**Explanation:**
For a regression model to fit, the plot should have sum of square for the errors to be zero.

**Explanation:**
QFD is able to show all three options a, b, and c. Thus d is the right answer.

**Explanation:**
Repeated trials or replications are often conducted to estimate the pure trial-to-trial experimental error so that lack of fit may be evaluated. Randomization frees an experiment from the environment and other biases. Sequential experiments are conducted one after another, not all at the same time. Adjustments may be made in the experimentation based upon the knowledge obtained. Almost any DOE contains planned grouping. So answer option b is correct.

**Explanation:**
Z = (120-100)/9 = 20/9 = 2.2
Area under 2.2 corresponds to 0.0139. Thus, the probability of a Type II Error, which is beta, is 1.39%. Option c is the correct answer.

**Explanation:**
UCL is calculated as three standard deviations above the mean of a process. Option b is the correct answer.

**Explanation:**
Screening will help the analyst to filter variables and determine what is really important in the response model. Response surfaces will then help optimize the model provided that all variables are quantitative. So option b is correct.

**Explanation:**
Covariates are factors that change during an experiment but were not planned to change. Interactivity occurs when the effect of one input factor on the output depends on the level of another input. Collinearity is a condition in which two variables are correlated. To obtain good results, one must be eliminated. Confounded factors have effects which are not separable; interactions are present in their results. Use care to select the best answer because 'Interactive' may initially appear to be the answer. Answer option b is correct.

**Explanation:**
The average proportion may be reported on a defects/defectives per million scale by multiplying the average (such as p bar, c bar, u bar, etc.) by 1,000,000. So option c is correct.

**Explanation:**
This is the case of non-value added activity.

**Explanation:**
Note that a negative response is requested. The advantages of control charts include their ability to detect trends of statistical significance, provide an ongoing measure of process capability, and detect special causes of variation. The disadvantage is that they can be difficult to interpret properly. So answer b is the correct.

**Explanation:**
While RTY shows the quality levels of the process, the need for improvement and utilization, it best indicates the amount of time and effort spent in rework and scrap, which in a sense also shows the Hidden Factory. Option c is the correct answer.

**Explanation:**
23 designs + 0 replicate gives you 23. Since this is full factorial we will include all of these, that is 23.

**Explanation:**
Histograms, fishbone charts, control charts, Pareto diagrams, and affinity diagrams have no application as memory aids. Data sheets, checklists, and flow charts might offer an advantage. Only answer choice c offers two of these tools. So option c is correct.

**Explanation:**
Please note that a negative response is requested. Enumerative data is data that can be counted. The student's t distribution would not be applicable. So option b is the correct choice.

**Explanation:**
One of the purposes of a fishbone diagram is to identify the potential components of a problem. Option b describes either process flow or work instructions. Option c could be describing a scatter diagram. Option d is more typical of Pareto diagrams.

**Explanation:**
Option a is incorrect because Run Charts are not control charts. Median charts are not as sensitive to process change as X-bar and R charts. Option b is not the best answer. The p charts (option d ) are meant for attributes and not measurements. Option c is correct.

**Explanation:**
Please note that a negative response is requested. The F, student's t, and chi-square distributions require known degrees of freedom to determine critical table values. The Poisson table only needs sample size and probability of occurrence. Option b is the correct choice.

**Explanation:**
In the usual prioritization matrix construction, factors with the highest strength values receive attention. However, the amount of attention depends upon the relative strength values of all factors. So option a is correct.

**Explanation:**
Except for Quality, all the others are secondary metrics. Thus a is the right option.

**Explanation:**
Project teams may have a composite membership of technicians, engineers, supervisors, mechanics, operators, and so on. These individuals would normally have diverse skills and experiences. Option d is correct.

**Explanation:**
Assignable variation is also called special or non-normal. This type of variation is unpredictable and is therefore not desirable when trying to keep a process in control. So option A is correct.

**Explanation:**
Answer options a and c are conceptually wrong. Options b and d are valid concepts but only option b responds to the question. A good reason to use a fractional factorial is that one knows the process and has no immediate concerns about factor interactions. Answer option b is correct.

**Explanation:**
The key word in this question is "difference." Options b and d are common to both strategic quality goals and the strategic business plan. Option c is incorrect. The strategic business plan forms the higher level with strategic quality goals being a part of it. So answer option a is correct.

**Explanation:**
Answer options a, c, and d are ideal for determining the effectiveness of various improvement activities. Brainstorming would be used to generate ideas if improvement results proved to be inadequate. Option B is correct.

**Explanation:**
Consider an example of a patient who wished to go for an HIV test. He was actually suffering from the virus, but the tests revealed that he was not. The test declared him negative on HIV, while he had the disease. Thus, False Negative, option b is right.

**Explanation:**
Mean is extremely sensitive to outliers and Mode is definitely not an option, thus Median seems to be the logical choice.

**Explanation:**
When people are moving more than needed to complete a task it is considered as motion waste.

**Explanation:**
Options a and b are not serious considerations, and thus option d can be ruled out. Conceptually, increase in sample size increases the possible accuracy of the experiment, and thus an increase in power. So, option c is the correct answer.

**Explanation:**
From the options provided the 1-sample sign test is the only non normal counterpart to the 1 sample t-test

**Explanation:**
TPM for Total Productive Maintenance is focused on Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE), which completely focuses on equipment reliability and maintenance. So, option b is the correct answer.

**Explanation:**
It is defined as any activity which clearly creates no value. It can be removed immediately with minimum or no capital investment, and with no detrimental effect on end value.

**Explanation:**
All the other metrics except PPM are used to measure defects. Option c is the correct answer.

**Explanation:**
In the Measure Stage of a DFSS approach DMADV, some practitioners may prefer to define operational metrics, but most practitioners would want to set the key measurement steps and metrics because that allows them to set the measurement system. Option c is correct.

**Explanation:**
This question requires basic quality tool knowledge. The Pareto diagram is used to prioritize problems and would not be the initial choice. The histogram and control chart are excellent tools but would not be correct choices for discovering all contributing factors. The fishbone diagram is the best tool for the described application. Answer b is correct.

**Explanation:**
A minor two-step calculation is required: DPO = D/TOP and TOP = Units * opportunities
DPO = D/(U*O) = 80/(1000*5) = 0.016000
DPMO = DPO*106 = 0.016000*106 = 16000
So option a is correct.

**Explanation:**
This question requires familiarity with X-bar - S charting and automated process equipment. Option c is incorrect. Two charts will still be necessary. Option b is a filler option. Option a may or may not be correct. This answer is dependent upon the sample size. In either event, the plot points and control limits will be proportional (assuming a reasonably small sample size) and is not a logical reason for making the X-bar - S selection. The assumption must be that the supervisor knows that the X-bar - S values can be supplied from an automated weight checker. So option d is correct.

**Explanation:**
Please note that a negative response is requested. The weakest selection is option b. Control chart paper was developed to support a logical control chart sample size. Sample sizes should not be chosen to fit a handy form. The other items have merit. So option b is the correct choice.

**Explanation:**
Mean is preferred over the other methods when outliers are not present in the data set.

**Explanation:**
Poke Yoke is a Lean concept for Error or Mistake Proofing a process.

**Explanation:**
The three valid assumptions for the standard deviation due to measurement variability are: measurement errors are independent, measurement errors are normally distributed, and measurement errors are independent of the magnitude of the measurement. Only answer a refers to a proper assumption. Answer a is correct.

**Explanation:**
The successful implementation of SMED and quick changeover is the key to a competitive advantage for any Process.

**Explanation:**
No sample points are common with another event in a mutually exclusive event. A dependent event relies on another event occurring. The complement of an event consists of all outcomes in which the event does not occur. A simple event is an outcome or event that cannot be broken down any further. So answer option c is correct.

**Explanation:**
Ideally, the GB is expected to collect data relevant to the problem and consult the BB for the best solution possible. So a is the right option.

**Explanation:**
Of the four distributions, only Chi-Square is used to make inferences about variances.

**Explanation:**
Please note that a negative response is requested. Items like CTQ trees, Pareto, yield data, customer feedback, and so on are useful for project definition. Control charts occur much later in the DMAIC cycle. So answer d is the correct choice.

**Explanation:**
A 5 Sigma process has a total of 233 defects. Thus, option a is correct.

**Explanation:**
Without validating the Measurement system the other three factors do not make any sense. Thus MSA needs to be done before doing anything in the Measure Phase.

**Explanation:**
Without determining Resolution or Discrimination, the team cannot go ahead with the GAGE RR Study. Resolution is the first point to determine in a GAGE RR Study. Option c is correct.

**Explanation:**
When the machine capability is wider than the specification(option c), X-bar and R charts are not useful tools. Reducing sample sizes (option a) and establishing acceptable quality levels (option d) relate to sampling and sampling plans. The X-bar and R chart are good choices if one needs to know when to investigate a process for causes of variation. So option b is correct.

**Explanation:**
The small sample size would make it impossible to give a high level of confidence in the results. However, inherent process variation, piece-to-piece variation, and measurement error are obtainable. Lot-to-lot variation would not be detectable unless carefully planned for (which is not indicated in the question). So option a is correct.

**Explanation:**
Option d is a filler option. It is desirable that the sample size be adequate (option c), but sufficient information may not be available to determine an adequate sample size before testing. One assumption made in the analysis of variance of means is that the variables are independent. So answer b is correct.

**Explanation:**
The variables could be confounded, but there is no indication that this is the case. The efficiency of estimators and nested experiments are distractor choices. Residuals are the differences between the experimental responses and predicted models. Option c is correct.

**Explanation:**
The normal distribution relates to variable data and not attribute data. The chi-square distribution is used to make inferences regarding population variances. The binomial distribution is assumed for defectives. The Poisson distribution is assumed for defects. So option d is correct.

**Explanation:**
Any access purchase and storage of office supply, sales literature, reports, etc. would constitute inventory type of waste.

**Explanation:**
A stakeholder is defined as anyone affected by the process output or process flow, or anyone influencing the end output. Thus, d is the correct answer.

**Explanation:**
In the Define Phase, the Six Sigma team should never update root causes in the Project charter. Answer choice a is the right option.

**Explanation:**
The probability distribution of the Poisson distribution contains the exponential function. Option a is the correct answer.

**Explanation:**
All the options are a part of the local or global community. However, relative to stakeholder groupings, community and society are often used interchangeably. So answer option a is correct.

**Explanation:**
A poka-yoke device is one that prevents incorrect parts from being made or assembled, or easily identifies a flaw or error.

**Explanation:**
Options a, b, and c can and should be updated in the Define Phase. Logically then Constraints is the right answer. Conceptually, in the Define Phase it is very difficult for a Six Sigma team to understand the possible constraints to the project. Option d is the right answer.

**Explanation:**
The F statistic is the ratio of two sample variances (two chi-square distributions). The assumption is that the variances are drawn from a normal distribution. Answer option a is correct.