Spring AOP Tutorial

Welcome to the eighth lesson Introduction to Spring AOP (Aspect Oriented Programming) of the Java tutorial, which is a part of the Java Certification Training Course. In this lesson, we will introduce you to the concept of Aspect Oriented Programming and how to configure AOP in a Java Application.

Objectives

By the end of this lesson on Spring AOP, you will be able to:

  • Explain AOP and its terminology

  • Configure AOP in a Java Application using AspectJ Approach

Why AOP?

AOP is used in applications that have cross-cutting concerns, that is, pieces of logic or code that are written in multiple classes/layers as per the requirements.

Common examples:

  • Transaction Management

  • Logging

  • Exception Handling (especially when you may want to have detailed traces or have some plan of recovering from exceptions)

  • Security aspects

  • Instrumentation

Understanding Concerns

A concern is a piece of code that performs a specific task. There are two types of concerns:

1) “Core” concerns are codes used for business logic

2) “Cross concerns” are functions that are conceptually separate from the application's business logic but affect the entire service layer.

Example: logging, auditing, declarative transactions, security, caching

Aspect-Oriented Programming provides one way to decouple dynamically core concern from crosscutting concern.

What Is AOP?

It is one of the basic components of the Spring framework.

The main idea of AOP (Aspect-Oriented Programming) is to isolate the cross-cutting concerns from the application code, thereby modularizing them as a different entity.

Services layer deals with two types of concerns: Core and cross-cutting concerns.

Uses of AOP

Spring AOP provides declarative enterprise services such as declarative transaction management.

It allows users to implement custom aspects.

Spring AOP is used to track user activity in large business applications.

It uses Proxy as a mechanism to implement cross-cutting concerns in a non-intrusive way.

AOP Terminologies

Some of the terms related to AOP are discussed below:

Aspect: A feature or functionality that cross-cuts over objects. It has a set of APIs (Application Programming Interface) that provides cross-cutting requirements.

JoinPoint: It defines the various execution points where an Aspect can be applied.

Pointcut: A Pointcut tells us about the Join Points where Aspects will be applied.

Advice: An advice provides concrete code implementation for the Aspect.

Target: It is a business object that comprises of Aspect business core concern.

Weaving: It represents a mechanism of associating cross-cutting concern to core concern dynamically.

Proxy: The Proxy is an object produced through weaving. There are two types: static proxy and dynamic proxy.

In the static proxy, the static method is used to develop and maintain proxy classes for each business method.

In the dynamic proxy, the proxy is developed at runtime.

Weaver: Code that produces proxies.

Proxy design pattern: Actual object (business object) is wrapped into another object knows as proxy and substitutes that object in place of the actual object.

We will discuss JoinPoint, Pointcut, and Proxy in this lesson.

Pointcut

Pointcut defines where exactly the Advices have to be applied in various Join Points.
Generally, they act as Filters for the application of various Advices into the real implementation.

Types of Pointcut

Springs defines two types of Pointcut:

  • Static: It verifies whether the join point has to be advised or not. It does this once the result is catched @reused.

  • Dynamic: It verifies every time as it has to decide the JoinPoint based on the argument passes to the method call.

StaticMethodMatcherPointcut

StaticMethodMatcherPointcut has two types of Pointcuts:

  • NameMatchMethodPointcut: It interrupts a method via ‘pointcut’ and ‘advisor’

  • AbstractRegexpMethodPointcut: Besides matching method by name, it can match the method’s name by using regular expression pointcut.

This pointcut is used to verify join point based on the pattern of the method name instead of name.

AbstractRegexpMethodPointcut

JdkRegexMethod Pointcut: It is represented by:  

org.springframework.aop.JdkRegexpMethodPointcut

PerlRegexMethodPointcut: It is represented by:

org.springframework.aop.support.Perl5RegexpMethodPointcut

DynamicMethodMatcherPointcut

This pointcut is used to verify the context from which business method call is made. If the method call is made in a specific flow, it will be advice; otherwise, it won’t.

Pointcut Interface

Pointcut is an interface; it is represented by org.springframework.aop.Pointcut.

Joinpoint

A Joinpoint is a candidate point in the Program Execution of the application where an aspect can be plugged in.

This point could be a method being called, an exception being thrown, or even a field being modified.

These are the points where your aspect’s code can be inserted into the normal flow of your application to add new behavior.

A pointcut defines the Joinpoints where associated Advice should be applied.

Joinpoint Methods

The table below lists the joinpoint methods along with their description.

Return Type

Method Name

Description

AccessibleObject

getStaticPart()

Return the static part of Joinpoint

Object

getThis()

Return the object that holds the current Joinpoint static part

Object

proceed()

Proceed to the next interceptor in the chain

How Does Spring AOP work?

Proxy interrupts the call made by the caller to the original object. It will have a chance to decide whether and when to pass on the call to the original object. In the meantime, any additional code can be executed.

Spring uses the dynamic proxy approach.

A dynamic proxy class is a class that implements a list of interfaces specified at runtime so that a method invocation through one of the interfaces on an instance of the class will be encoded and dispatched to another object through a uniform interface.

Proxy Pattern

In the proxy pattern, a class represents the functionality of another class. This type of design pattern is a structural pattern.

It creates an object that has the original object to interface its functionality to the outer world. A Proxy design pattern is used when we want to provide controlled access to a functionality.

It is also used to save on the amount of memory used. Similarly, if you want to control access to an object, the pattern becomes useful.

Ways to Generate Dynamic Proxy

There are two ways to generate dynamic proxy as discussed below:

1. jdk approach: When the business class implements the interface, jdk creates a proxy for the business object

2. cglib approach: cglib.jar is used when a business class fails to implement any interface, and jdk is unable to create a proxy

Advice

Advice refers to the actual implementation code for an Aspect. Spring supports Method Aspect.

Different types of aspects available in Spring are:

  1. Before advice: It executes before a Joinpoint but does not have the ability to prevent execution flow proceeding to the Joinpoint

  2. After advice: It is executed after the business method call.

  3. Around advice: It surrounds a Joinpoint such as a method invocation. It can perform custom behavior before and after the method invocation.

  4. Throws Advice: It is executed if the actual method throws an exception.

Steps to Configure Advice

The steps followed to configure advice are discussed below:

  1. To configure these advices, we have to depend on ProxyFactoryBean. This Bean is used to create Proxy objects for the implementation class along with the Advice implementation.

  2. The property ‘proxyInterface’ contains the Interface Name for which the proxy class has to be generated.

  3. The ‘interceptorNames’ property takes a list of Advices to be applied to the dynamically generated proxy class.

  4. Finally, the implementation class is given in the ‘target’ property.

Before Advice

It is used to intercept before the method execution starts. For example, a system may need to perform some logging operations before allowing users to access resources.

Whenever the caller calls the business method, all before advice code is executed prior to the business method.

If an exception occurs in the method, afterReturning() method will never be called.

Configuring Before Advice

Let us look at the steps to configure Before Advice.

1) Develop a business interface and its implemented class

2) Develop a class that implements AfterReturningAdvice interface

3) Override its afterReturning() method[(Method method, Object[] args, Object target )]. The Cross-cutting code is written here.

• afterReturningMethod method - target method to be invoked

• Object[] args - various arguments that are passed on to the method

• Object target - target reference to the object that is calling the method

4) Get a proxy

5) Make a method call

Steps Diagram: Before Advice

After Advice

It is used to intercept after the method execution. For example, a system needs to perform some delete operations after logging out.

After Advice is executed after business method.

Configuring After Advice

Let us look at the steps to configure After Advice.

1. Develop a business interface and its implemented class

2. Develop a class that implements AfterReturningAdvice interface

3. Override its afterReturning (Method method, Object[] args, Object target) method. Cross-cutting code is written here.

• Method - the target method is invoked

• Object[] args - various arguments that are passed to the method

• Object target - target reference to the object that is calling the method

4. Get a proxy

5. Make a method call

If exception occurs in the method, afterReturning() method will never be called.

Steps Diagram: After Advice

Around Advice

It can change the return argument of the method call.

It provides finer control regarding whether the target method has to be called or not.

It can be performed before business logic or after business logic.

Configuring Around Advice

Let us look at the steps to configure Around Advice.

  1. Develop a class that implements MethodInterceptor interface

  2. Override its invoke method. Write the cross-cutting code

  3. Get a proxy

  4. Make a method call

  5. Parameter of invoke method()

public Object invoke(MethodInvocation methodInvocation)

Steps Diagram: Around Advice

Throws Advice

When an exception happens during the execution of a method, Throws Advice can be used through the means of org.springframwork.aop.ThrowsAdvice to handle the exception.

This advice is executed only when the exception is raised.

Advice has to implement org.springframework.aop.ThrowsAdvice. It is just a marker interface.

Exception handling code is considered cross-cutting code and can be done for entire service layer in Throwsadvice with different kinds of exception parameters.

Configuring Throws Advice

Let us look at the steps to configure Throws advice.

1. Develop a business interface and its implemented class

2. Develop a class that implements ThrowsAdvice interface

3. Override its afterThrowing method. Cross-cutting code is written here.

4. Get a proxy

5. Make a method call

6. Throws Advice can take any of the following forms:

public void afterThrowing(Exception ex)
public void afterThrowing(Method method,Object[] args,Object target,Exception exception)

Configuring AOP in Java Applications using the AspectJ Approach

Let's look at Configuring AOP in Java Applications using the AspectJ Approach.

AspectJ Based AOP

There are two ways to use Spring AOP AspectJ implementation:

  • By annotation

  • By XML configuration

We need to download the aspectweaver.jar file to get this function in our application.

Here are the steps for annotation with Aspect-based AOP.

  1. @Before annotation applied before calling the actual method.

  2. @After annotation applied after calling the actual method.

  3. @Around applied before and after the calling method

  4. @AfterReturning applied after calling the actual method and before returning result.

  5. @AfterThrowing applied if the actual method throws an exception

  6. @Pointcut is used to define the pointcut and if you give in its various forms it can be applied either on all public methods or on all public methods of operation class or on all the methods of operation class etc.

  7. @Aspect declares the class as aspect.

@Before

Let's look at the two classes Perform and TrackPerformance classes as shown below. Assume that Perform class contains actual business methods. The AspectJ Before Advice is applied before the actual business logic method using @Before advice.

Perform class

public class Perform {
public void msgone { System.out.println("msg method invoked"); }
public int msgtwo( ) { System.out.println("m method invoked"); return 2; }
public int msgthree( ) { System.out.println("k method invoked"); return 3; }
}

TrackPerformance class

@Aspect
public class TrackPerformance {

@Pointcut("execution(* Operation.*(..))")
public void k( ) { } // pointcut name

@Before ("k( )") //applying pointcut on before advice
public void myadvice(JoinPoint jp) // it is advice (before advice)
{
  System.out.println(“Before advice is called");
}
}

In the given program, you can see @Before, @PointCut (with the operation), and @Aspect in the tracker class which is going to track the performance class.

When the object of Perform class is created, the following output is generated:

calling msg...
Before advice is called
msg ( ) method invoked
calling m...
Before advice is called
msgone ( ) method invoked
calling k...
Before advice is called
Msgtwo( ) method invoked

@After

For @After annotation, use the same Person class and TrackPerformance. Person class is the same, but @After annotation in TrackPerformance class is used in this case. So the aspect of the PointCut remains the same, only @Before is replaced with @After.

TrackPerformance class

@Aspect
public class TrackPerformance {

@Pointcut("execution(* Operation.*(..))")
public void k( ) { } // pointcut name

@After ("k( )") //applying pointcut on after advice
public void myadvice(JoinPoint jp) // it is advice (before advice)
{
  System.out.println(“After advice is called");
}
}

You can see the difference that, instead of before in the earlier case, now you have the afters getting triggered, which is after the methods individually are called. You can execute that method to take appropriate action after your business methods have executed.

When the object of Perform class is created, the following output is generated:

calling msg...
msgone ( ) method invoked
After advice is called
calling m...
msgtwo ( ) method invoked
After advice is called
calling k...
msg three ( ) method invoked
After advice is called

@Around

In the example below, you see the @Around now getting replaced here instead of the @Before and @After and the code rather pretty much the same.

@Aspect
public class TrackPerformance

{

@Pointcut("execution(* Operation.*(..))")
public void abcPointcut ( ){ }

@Around ("abcPointcut( ) ") 
public Object myadvice (ProceedingJoinPoint pjp) throws Throwable
{
System.out.println("Additional Concern Before calling actual method");
Object obj = pjp.proceed( );
System.out.println("Additional Concern After calling actual method");
return obj;
}

}

When the object of Person class is created, the following output is generated:

Additional Concern Before calling actual method

msgone( ) is invoked

Additional Concern After calling actual method

Additional Concern Before calling actual method

msgtwo ( ) is invoked

Additional Concern After calling actual method

Additional Concern Before calling actual method

msgthree ( ) is invoked

Now, you have an Additional Concern Before and Additional Concern After for the first and then the second method. This is the impact of @Around notation.

XML Configuration Based AOP

It uses the following XML elements to define advice:

aop:before

It is applied before calling the actual business logic method.

aop:after

It is applied after calling the actual business logic method.

aop:after-returning:

It is applied after calling the actual business logic method. It can be used to intercept the return value in advice.

aop:around

It is applied before and after calling the business logic method.

aop:after throwing

It is applied if the actual business logic method throws an exception.

applicationContext.xml for Implementing the advice

 

<?xml version="1.0"     encoding="UTF-8"?>

<beans

<aop:aspectj-autoproxy  />

<bean id="opBean"   class="com.javatpoint.Operation">   </bean>

<bean id="trackAspect"   class="com.javatpoint.TrackOperation"></bean>

<aop:config>

    <aop:aspect id = "myaspect" ref="trackAspect" >

<!-- @Before  →

<aop:pointcut id="pointCutBefore"    expression="execution(*Perform.*(..))"/>

<aop:beforemethod="myadvice"   pointcut-ref="pointCutBefore"/>

</aop:aspect>

</aop:config>

</beans>

 

<!-- @After →

<aop:pointcut id="pointCutAfter"   expression="execution(* Perform.* (..))" />

<aop:after method="myadvice"  pointcut-ref="pointCutAfter"/>

In the above code you see the applicationContext file, both the beans with ids, the class operation and TrackOperation, and the PointCuts have been defined with the expression.

It also shows the code for @Before @After if needed.

Advice vs. AspectJ

The differences between Advice and AspectJ are discussed below:

Advice

AspectJ

The Spring AOP is best used for application specific tasks such as security, logging, transactions etc.

AspectJ contains friendly designed patterns.

This is a proxy-based AOP. You can use method execution Pointcut only.

This supports all Pointcuts.

There can be little runtime overhead.

It needs Spring jar files only.

There is less runtime overhead than that of Spring AOP.

You need extra build process with AspectJ Compiler or have to set up LTW (load-time weaving)

Demo - Classical Approach (Advice) and AspectJ

Let us start with the demo on Spring AOP and we'll go through both classical approach by the advice classes and the AspectJ approach.

So AOP or Aspect Oriented Programming speaks of aspects or events or advices. For example, before a method is executed, what advice is to be given or after a method is executed if you want some type of action to be performed.

Now, AOP is constructed on the proxy design pattern, and the proxy pattern is actually a call, which is made to an actual server via a proxy server. So the concept is that the proxy interrupts this call, takes up the call and as if it is the real server, and then forwards it to the actual server.

This can be useful for auditing purpose, where you want to create an event log or the logger where you want to track every action that is performed in your application.

There are two approaches in AOP:

  • The classical approach where we have to write advices in a separate class, and it takes a lot of being the conflict to write in the xml file.

  • The modular or Aspect4J option, which is via annotations where one central class can handle aspects of any other classes.

All methods that start with ‘is,’ for example, isvalid etc. is where you want to perform a check when all typical methods are executed. Or if you want to track your application, this concept can be used.

Using Aspect4J, you can also use rejects expressions with modular approaches to get this done in a very simple way without having to do too much of configuration. First, we will look at the classical approach.

Consider a simple java project here that is named classical. As you can see, there are a couple of jar files that we have referenced. The first jar file that we will need is the commonslogging.jar.

Then we need all of the Spring AOP jar files or rather the spring jar files. We will also need AspectJ for the implementing AspectJ AOP and AspectJ weaver.

So these are the external libraries/jars that have been added to the project. Then we created a new package and we called it com.do. We created a simple business object or entity class called SomeBO. Inside it, we have written a validate method that simply prints “Validation stuff from BO.”

We have overloaded that method with another method called validate, which takes the age parameter. If the age is less than eighteen, it throws an arithmetic exception that says “Not valid age,” else it prints a simple message that says “Vote confirmed.”

We will now learn how to build Aspects and Advices around it. So there is another package that we have added which is called com.apps. In this package, a new class called “AfterAdvisor” has been added. Now following is the code that will execute after the function validate is called and any appropriate action has to be taken.

So here you see AfterAdvisor which has to implement from the interface after returning advice. We provide the implementation for the afterReturning method which takes three arguments. And here we print “some stuff post method call” and arg1.getName(). That is a code that exists in the AfterAdvisor.

Now, we have added one more class called BeforeAdvisor. In the BeforeAdvisor, it implements an interface called MethodBeforeAdvice, and provides an implementation for a method called before. Here we just log a message saying, “logging before call of method” with arg0.getName().

Then we have added a third class called BothAdvisor. So BothAdvisor will trigger a call, before and after the execution of the method, so here we simply print “Before Method.”

We then call the proceed(), so it proceeds to the next step and then we print “After Method.”

So it will execute the validate method in the business object, and then it will proceed to call the after method.

Finally, in case there is an exception, we have an ExceptionAdvisor class that implements, ThrowsAdvice and provides a method afterThrowing. Here, we just print a message which says “additional concern if an exception occurs.”

Now, we need the configuration file, so we have added a new XML file. This file could have any name, let’s say, beans.xml.

We have added all the references that are actually required on the top. So this is the standard header. Here is the first bean that is getting configured. So id=”bo”, is a custom name that we have given for SomeBO class.

Then we have:

“ba,” which is an id that stands for the BeforeAdvisor class

“aa” stands for AfterAdvisor

“bh” is an id for BothAdvisor and

“ea” stands for the exception advisor.

Then we have added an in-built class which is org.springframework.aop.framework.ProxyFactoryBean.

And here we have set name=”target” and ref=”bo”, which means all these advices will be targeting com.to.SomeBO class object and methods.

Then we have a list of the values that we would want to populate according to the advisor that we want to be configured. Finally, we add a new package called com.exe within which we add a class called Main.java. In this class, we use the spring framework to generate the object injected into our main method which is someBO.class.

So we get the bean and we pass a reference to that proxy id that we had given and we call the Validate() method. Then we also have an overloaded Validate() method that takes an int parameter. We put it in a try catch block because that throws an exception.

Now if you look at the bean config file, it is config to “aa”, which means the after advisor code is expected to execute.

So let's go to the main and we'll execute this code. We'll also see Validation stuff from BO, which is the validate method and some stuff post call has been executed. So this is the AfterAdvice that has got executed, which is some auditing or tracking work that you want to perform after the function is called.

You can see that the AfterAdvice automatically executes.

Now let us modify the parameter of validate function from 17 to 19 and save it. Once we execute this, you will see that it now calls some stuff post method call. Then it actually calls the second method Vote confirmed and it again says some stuff post method call.

So that is the AfterAdvisor executing after each method call.

Now let's go to the bean.xml file and we change this value to “ba” which stands for BeforeAdvisor and save this. Now when we execute this code, you can see it logs a call before the validate method. Then it executes the validate method. Then again it logs before the call of method Validate and then Vote confirmed.

So this is the code that got executed twice once before each method.

Now let's go back to the beans.xml and we'll configure the value as ‘bh’ which is the BothAdvisor or the AroundAdvisor.

Let's go to the main and execute this. Here you see before and after method functions are called where you can take appropriate audit action, or if you want to log something you can log it as well. If we change the Validate method parameter back to 17, it will generate the exception.

It only executes the before method, the exception was raised so the method did not complete. Hence the after method is not called.

Now you can also add multiple aspects. Let's say, we add another one called “ea” and save it. We again run the code and here you see before method, validation stuff, after method, before method and then additional concern, if an exception occurs.

And so as seen from the image, this is the println that ran from the ExceptionAdvisor class saying that if the exception occurs, then you also have an exception which will run.

We will now see the AspectJ approach, which is very similar to the above approach, but with much better options where you do not have to do too much of configuration and you can actually get everything done just by annotation.

Let us open the project that we have called i.e. Aspect Approach. Let's look at the jars that have been added. Again, all the spring AOP or the spring framework jars have been added.

Besides that, we have the comments, the AspectJ and aspect weaver jars which have been downloaded from the web.

So these are the reference libraries which have been added. Post this, we created a new package called com.business object. Within it, we created a business object class very similar to the previous example.

Here we have a validate method and we've overloaded another validate method that simply checks for the age and throws an exception message. We added one more class to this project, which is CentralAOPAspect.

Now, this is the class that is actually doing all of the validations or rather all of the logging (before, after, both, and around). So all the options are now there in a single class rather than configuring everything in the beans.xml.

Next, we have imported the relevant packages from AspectJ. We then put the annotation @Aspect because this is the aspect class. We provide the Pointcut annotation where we're targeting the execution or for the method that starts with the word ‘Valid’ and is there as a part of the SomeBO class.

So we have a method called validate which is going to track and map to that method. And the * symbol after ‘SomeBO.Valid’ here indicates anything that comes after the word Valid, (in our case the method name isValidate) and the dots indicate that it can take no arguments or any argument.

So we have two methods:

One called validate which takes no arguments and

Another one which is overloaded that takes an integer argument.

Here we have a function ‘v’ that now stands for the validate function so when the validate function gets called, this will execute.

Then we have the @Before annotation, and below it is the method that will get called before validate.

Next is the @After annotation and below is the method that will get called after the validate. These method names could be anything as long as it takes a value of or passes an object or accepts an object of JoinPoint and maps to this synonym tag.

Then there is @ Around which prints before and after calling the actual method. We proceed and then we return that object. There is the after throwing for the exception. Any exception that is thrown from SomeBO class, we print:

  • “additional concern”

  • “method signature”

  • “the exception”

  • “End of After throwing advice….”

So you see the code is all now structured into a single class as against four different classes that we had to create with the previous approach. Hence, this is much more simplified, easier, and logical to write as compared to the previous time.

Let's go to the beans.xml and you'll see the header remains common. Here we configure the SomeBO object. We configure the CentralAOPAspect class (the class that we had previously created).

Then we have bean, with

class = org.springframework.aop.aspectj.annotation.AnnotationAwareAspectJAutoProxyCreator. So this is the class that we need to map to get this functionality working. Now let's go to the aspect class and here we'll just have the before and after functional. We will make rest of the functionals as a comment. It is shown in the figure below:

Let us come to the main and attempt to execute this.

After execution, we see before method, validate, and before method valid int. and it throws the exception.

Now let's come back to the CentralAOPAspect class. We'll also uncomment the @After part of the code, and execute this.

As seen in the output, we have the before and after for the validation, again the before and after for the int, and then it throws the exception.

Now let's try the around annotation (by uncommenting it) and commenting the other notations as shown:

Let's come to the main class and execute this.

In the output, you see the additional concern before, additional concern after and then additional concern before the after did not execute because it was an exception.

Let's come back to the CentralAOPAspect class. Here we will comment the @Around annotation and uncomment @AfterThrowing annotation. Now we execute the main method. In the output, you can see the additional concern, the method signature, the exception, and the end of after throwing advice.

This is exactly what this particular annotation was managing.

Next, if we get rid of all the comments, it will execute the entire block. So we come to main and execute it.

In the output, you see now all of the aspects triggering that we have added. And if we correct the parameter value of Validate function from 17 to 19, we will not have the exception thrown.

Execute the main method and at the output, you see additional concern after calling actual method, and then the after method.

So that shows us how easy it is to use an AOP to actually configure our applications to write before and after join points that will execute. The advices will execute before and after our functions are called, so that we can do some important initialization, clean up, and also logging activity from an audit trail perspective.

Summary

So the key takeaways from this session have been:

  • The AOP is used in applications that have cross-cutting concerns, where a piece of logic or code that is written in multiple classes and layers as per the requirements.

  • Spring defines two types of Pointcut:

  • Static, where it verifies whether the join point has to be advised or not. It does this once the result is catched @reused.

  • Dynamic, where it verifies every time as it has to decide the Join Point based on the argument passed to the method call.

  • Spring uses the dynamic proxy approach. A dynamic proxy class is a class that implements a list of the interfaces specified at runtime so that a method invocation through one of the interfaces on an instance of the class will be encoded and dispatched to another object through a uniform interface.

Conclusion

With this, we come to an end of this lesson on “Introduction to Spring AOP (Aspect Oriented Programming)”. In the next lesson, we will focus on Spring JDBC and Spring Hibernate.

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