Common Service Operation Activities Tutorial

4.1 Common Service Operation Activities

Learning Unit 04 : Common Service Operation Activities. Which discusses about common Service Operation activities across processes. As there are many common operational activities carried within the processes this module explains them in detail. So let us go ahead and learn more about these common Service Operation activities across processes.

4.2 Moving From Technology Centric To Business Centric

Let us start with our first slide which talks about how an organization can Move from being Technology Centric to Business Centric. We often get confused on the concept of IT – BUSINESS alignment. The concept of Service Management is always focused with business and not technology as business focus will lead to IT aligning itself with their focus. Thus it is important for us to move our mind sets from technology centric to business centric. This figure illustrates the steps involved in maturing from a technology-centric organization to an organization that harnesses technology as part of its business strategy. Diagram further outlines the role of Technology Managers in organizations of differing maturity. The diagram is not comprehensive, but it does provide examples of the way in which technology is managed in each type of organization. The headings indicate the major role played by IT in managing technology. The text in the rows describes the characteristics of an IT department at each level. The purpose of this diagram is to explain the modules focus on Technical Management activities, but there is no single way of representing them. A less mature organization will tend to see these activities as ends in themselves, not a means to an end. A more mature organization will tend to subordinate these activities to higher-level Service Management objectives. For example, the Server Management team will move from an insulated department, focused purely on managing servers, on a team that works closely with other Technology Managers to find ways of increasing their value to the business. This diagram also helps us to understand that there is no ‘right’ way of grouping and organizing the departments that perform these services. Some readers might interpret the headings in this chapter as the names of departments, but this is not the case. The aim of this chapter is to identify the typical technical activities involved in Service Operation. In some cases a dedicated group may handle all of a process or activities while in other cases processes or activities may be shared or split between groups. However, by way of broad guidance, the following sections list the required activities under the functional groups involved in their operation. This does not mean that all organizations have to use these divisions. Smaller organizations will tend to assign groups of these activities (if they are needed at all) to single departments, or even individuals. Please note that this unit does not provide a detailed analysis of all the activities. There are specialized, and detailed guidance available from the platform of vendors and other technical frameworks to compliment the same. This unit aims to highlight the importance and nature of technology management for Service Management in the IT context.

4.3 Monitoring And Control

After understanding the business centric and technology centric view, let’s get introduced to one of the activities of Service Operation which is: Monitoring and Control. Here Monitoring refers to the activity of observing a situation to detect changes that happen over time. The measurement and control of services are based on a continual cycle of monitoring, reporting and subsequent action. Monitoring Is de?ned as – activity of observing a situation, Reporting Is de?ned as – analysis, production and distribution and Control Is de?ned as – process of managing the utilization.

4.4 Monitoring And Control

Monitor and Control loop is the most common model for defining control. Although it is a simple model, it has many complex applications within IT Service Management. Typically there are two types of Monitor Control Loops: The first is, Open Loop Systems which are designed to perform a specific activity regardless of environmental conditions. For example, a backup can be initiated at a given time and frequency – and will run regardless of other conditions. Second is, Closed Loop Systems which monitors an environment and respond to changes in that environment. For example, in network load balancing a monitor will evaluate the traffic on a circuit. If network traffic exceeds a certain range, the control system will begin to route traffic across a backup circuit. The monitor will continue to provide feedback to the control system which will continue to regulate the flow of network traffic between the two circuits. To help clarify the difference, solving Capacity Management through over-provisioning is open loop; a load-balancer that detects congestion/failure and redirects capacity is closed loop. What needs to be monitored has to be well defined. There are two types of monitoring: active and passive and reactive and proactive, lets understand the difference in the common types of monitoring. Active Monitoring refers to the ongoing ‘interrogation’ of a device or system to determine its status. This type of monitoring is usually reserved to proactively monitor the availability of critical devices or systems; or as a diagnostic step to resolve an Incident or diagnose a problem. Passive Monitoring is more common and refers to generating and transmitting events to a ‘listening device’ or monitoring agent. Reactive Monitoring is designed to request or trigger action following a certain type of event or failure. Reactive monitoring is used for exceptions, also used as part of normal operations procedures, for example a batch job completes successfully, which prompts the scheduling system to submit the next batch job. Proactive Monitoring is used to detect patterns of events which indicate that a system or service may be about to fail. Proactive monitoring is generally used in more mature environments where these patterns have been detected previously, often several times. Let us now move on to learn about the activities of IT Operations Management.

4.5 IT Operations

In our last slide we discussed about Monitoring and Control activities. This slide talks about IT operations management. IT operations would involve the activities like Console Management / Operations Bridge, Job Scheduling, Backup and Restore and ‘Print and Output’. Let us understand these activities in detail. Console management refers to the Observation and monitoring of the IT Infrastructure, it can occur from a centralized console – to which all system events are routed. Historically, this involved the monitoring of the master operations console of one or more mainframes – but these days it is more likely to involve monitoring of a server farm(s), storage devices, and network components, applications, databases or any other CIs, including any remaining mainframe, from a single location, known as the Operations Bridge. The other theory is that the Operations Bridge represents a link between the IT Operations teams and the traditional Help Desk. In some organizations this means that the functions of Operational Control and the Help Desk were merged into the Service Desk, which performed both sets of duties in a single physical location. IT Operations will perform standard routines, queries or reports delegated to it as part of delivering services; or as part of routine housekeeping delegated by Technical and Application Management teams. Job Scheduling involves defining and initiating job-scheduling software packages to run batch and real-time work. This will normally involve daily, weekly, monthly, annual and ad hoc schedules to meet business needs. The organization’s data has to be protected and this will include backup (copying) and storage of data in remote locations where it can be protected and used, should it need to be restored due to loss, corruption or implementation of IT Service Continuity Plans. An overall backup strategy must be agreed with the business, covering - What data has to be backed up and the frequency and intervals to be used, How many generations of data have to be retained – this may vary by the type of data being backed up, or what type of file (e.g. Data file or application executable), what is the type of backup (full, partial, incremental) and checkpoints to be used, what is the location for storage and rotation schedules, what are the transportation methods. For example, file transfer via the network, physical transportation on magnetic media, what are the Testing/checks to be performed, such as test-reads, test restores, checksums etc. Recovery Point Objective describes the point to which data will be restored after recovery of an IT service. This may involve loss of data. For example, a Recovery Point Objective of one day may be supported by daily backups, and up to 24 hours of data may be lost. Recovery Point Objectives for each IT service should be negotiated, agreed and documented in OLAs, SLAs and UCs. (Read as abbreviated) Recovery Time Objective describes the maximum time allowed for recovery of an IT service following an interruption. The Service Level to be provided may be less than normal Service Level Targets. Recovery Time Objectives for each IT service should be negotiated, agreed and documented in OLAs, SLAs and UCs. (Read as abbreviated) There is also the concern that “How to verify that the backups will work if they need to be restored”. Even if there are no error codes generated, there may be several reasons why the backup cannot be restored. A good backup strategy and operations procedures will minimize the risk of this happening. Backup procedures should include a verification step to ensure that the backups are complete and that they will work if a restore is needed. Where any backup failures are detected, recovery actions must be initiated. There is also a need to procure and manage the necessary media (disks, tapes, CDs, etc.) To be used for backups, so that there is no shortage of supply. The actual initiation of the backups might be automated, or carried out from the Operations Bridge. Some organizations may utilize Operations staff to perform the physical transportation and racking of backup copies to or from remote locations. If backups are being automated or performed remotely, then Event Monitoring capabilities should be considered so that any failures can be detected early and rectified before they cause problems. In such cases IT Operations has a role to play in defining alerts and escalation paths. In all cases, IT Operations staff must be trained in backup (and restore) procedures – which must be well documented in the organization’s IT Operations Procedures Manual. Any specific requirements or targets should be referenced in OLAs or UCs where appropriate, while any user or Customer requirements or activity should be specified in the appropriate SLA. Restore- A restore can be initiated from a number of sources, ranging from an event that indicates data corruption, through to a Service Request from a user or Customer logged at the Service Desk. A restore may be needed in the case of Corrupt data, Lost data, Disaster recovery/IT service Continuity situation , Historical data required for forensic investigation. The steps to be taken will include location of the appropriate data/media , Transportation or transfer back to the physical recovery location Agreed on the checkpoint recovery point and the specific location of the recovered data (disk, directory, folder etc.), actual restoration of the file/data (copy-back and any rollback/roll-forward needed to arrive at the agreed checkpoint, Checking to ensure successful completion of the restore – with further recovery action if needed until success has been achieved and lastly Customer sign-off. Print and Output Many services consist of generating and delivering information in printed or electronic form. Ensuring the right information gets to the right people, with full integrity, requires formal control and management. Print (physical) and Output (electronic) facilities and services need to be formally managed because they often represent the tangible output of a service. The ability to measure that this output has reached the appropriate destination is therefore very important. For example checking whether files with financial transaction data have actually reached a bank through an FTP(through an F-T-P) service. Physical and electronic output often contains sensitive or confidential information. It is vital that the appropriate levels of security are applied to both the generation and the delivery of this output. Many organizations will have centralized bulk printing requirements which IT Operations must handle. In addition to the physical loading and re-loading of paper and the operation and care of the printers, other activities may be needed, such as Agreement and setting of pre-notification of large print runs and alerts to prevent excessive printing by unnecessary print jobs. Physical control of high-value stationery such as company cheques or certificates, etc. Management of the physical and electronic storage required to generate the output. In many cases IT will be expected to provide archives for the printed and electronic materials Control of all printed material so as to adhere to data protection legislation and regulation e.g. HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act) in the USA, or FSA (Financial Services Authority) in the UK. Where print and output services are delivered directly to the users, it is important that the responsibility for maintaining the printers or storage devices is clearly defined. For example, most users assume that cleaning and maintenance of printers must be performed by IT. If this is not the case, this must be clearly stated in the SLA. Let us now move on to learn about Mainframe management activities in the next slide.

4.6 Server And Mainframe Management And Support

Servers and mainframes are used to meet a variety of IT requirements. These include hosting applications and databases, processing high-volume transactions, maintain large amounts of documentation, running client,server services, and storage, print and file management. Most of these are critical activities and therefore essential for a successful Service Operation. The activities performed by server and mainframe management teams include: Support and maintenance of appropriate operating systems and related utility software. The teams are also responsible patch application, taking backups and restoring data and files when required. License management for all server configuration items, especially operating systems, utilities and miscellaneous software. Provide third-level support for all server and/or server operating system related incidents. This includes diagnosis and restoration activities and liaison with third-party suppliers. Provide advice and guidance to the business on the selection, sizing, procurement and usage of servers and related utility software. System security activities like control and maintenance of server access controls and permissions and physical security of servers. Definition and management of virtual servers to ensure workload balancing and distribution. Provide information and assistance to Capacity Management to achieve optimum throughput, utilization and performance from the available servers. The next slide talks about Network Management.

4.7 Network Management

Server Management activities and Network Management activities have a connection. Let us understand these activities in detail in this slide. As most IT services are dependent on connectivity, Network Management will be essential to deliver services and also to enable Service Operation staff to access and manage key service components. Network Management will have overall responsibility for all of the organization’s own Local Area Networks (LANs) and Wide Area Networks (WANs) – and will also be responsible for liaising with third-party network suppliers. Their role will include activities as initial planning and installation of new networks or network components; maintenance and upgrades to the physical network infrastructure. This is done through Service Design and Service Transition. Network management will also be Third-level support for all network related activities, including investigation of network issues. For example pinging or tracing route andor use of Network Management software tools – although it should be noted that pinging a server does not necessarily mean that the service is available, and liaison with third-parties as necessary. This also includes the installation and use of ‘sniffer’ tools, which analyze network traffic, to assist in Incident and problem resolution. Network management will be responsible for Maintenance and support of network operating system and middleware software including patch management, upgrades, etc. Also they will be responsible for Monitoring of network traffic to identify failures or to spot potential performance or bottleneck issues and will help to Reconfigure or reroute the traffic to achieve improved throughput. Network management will also be involved in one of the important activities that is Network security in line with the organization’s Information Security Management, including firewall management, access rights, password protection etc. Moving on let us learn about storage and archive activities in the next slide.

4.8 Storage And Archive

Organizational data retention policies and regulatory requirements determine the storage and archival activities needed for IT organizations. In large organizations a separate team or department may be required to perform these activities and to manage technology involved. We shall now briefly discuss the responsibilities of the storage teams. The responsibilities include ? Definition of data storage policies and procedures; ? File storage naming conventions, hierarchy and placement decisions; ? Design, sizing, selection, procurement, configuration and operation of all data storage infrastructure; ? Maintenance and support for all utility and middleware data storage software; ? Liaison with information lifecycle management or governance teams to ensure compliance with data protection and IT governance regulations; ? Involvement with definition and agreement of archiving policy; ? Housekeeping of all data storage facilities; ? Archiving data according to rules and schedules defined during service design; ? Retrieval of archived data as needed; ? Management of archiving technologies and migration from outdated technology to new technologies; and ? Third-line support for storage and archive-related incidents. Next, we will look at data administration.

4.9 Database Administration

Let us now look in to the next activity which is on Database Administration. Let us understand the activity in detail. Database Administration must work closely with key Application Management teams or departments – and in some organizations the functions may be combined or linked under a single management structure. Organizational options include: Database administration being performed by each Application Management team for all the applications under its control Database Administration would require a dedicated department, which manages all databases, regardless of type or application or they can also have Several departments, each managing one type of database, regardless of what application they are part of. Database Administration works to ensure the optimal performance, security and functionality of databases that they manage. Database Administrators typically have the following responsibilities: • Creation and maintenance of database standards and policies • Initial database Design, creation, testing • Management of the database availability and performance; resilience, sizing, capacity volumetric etc. • Resilience may require database replication, which would be the responsibility of Database Administration • Ongoing administration of database objects: indexes, tables, views, constraints, sequences snapshots and stored procedures; page locks – to achieve optimum utilization • Performing database housekeeping ensure database are functioning optimally and securely. For example tuning, indexing etc… • Monitoring of usage like transaction volumes, response times, concurrency levels, etc.. • Identification, reporting and management of database security issues like audit trials and forensics Let us now move on to the next slide on Directory Service management.

4.10 Directory Services Management

In our last slide I introduced you to the Database Administration activity. This slide explains about the Directory Services Management Before we get into the details, let us first understand what a Directory Service is? A Directory Service is a specialized software application that manages information about the resources available on a network and which users have access to. It is the basis for providing access to those resources and for ensuring that unauthorized access is detected and prevented. This is covered in detail in Access Management. Directory Services Management refers to the process that is used to manage Directory Services. Its activities include: • Working as part of Service Design and Service Transition to ensure that new services are accessible and controlled when they are deployed • Locating resources on a network (if these have not already been defined during Service Design) • They will also be involved in Tracking the status of those resources and providing the ability to manage these resources remotely • Managing the rights of specific users or groups of users to access resources on a network along with • Defining and maintaining naming conventions to be used for resources on a network and also ensuring consistency of naming and access control on different networks in the organization • Linking different directory services throughout the organization to form a distributed directory service, that is users will only see one logical set of network resources • Monitoring events on the directory services, such as unsuccessful attempts to access a resource and taking the appropriate action where required • Maintaining and updating the tools used to manage directory services. Moving on let us learn about Desktop Management in the next slide.

4.11 Desktop And Mobile Device Support

IT services and applications are accessed through desktops, laptops and mobile devices. Desktop and laptop support has traditionally been a key area of support within Service Operation. With the growth of technological innovations, mobile devices have come to play a prominent role and the support now extends to mobile phones and tablets. The specific responsibilities of desktop and mobile device support teams include : Defining desktop and mobile computing policies and procedures like licensing polices and desktop usage policies Designing and agreeing standard desktop and device images Service maintenance including deployment of releases, upgrades, patches, and hot-fixes Design and implementation of desktop and mobile device archiving/rebuild policies Third-level support of desktop and mobile device related incidents Support for connectivity issues to mobile staff or staff working from home and Configuration control and audit of desktops, laptops and mobile devices. Next, we will discuss about Middleware management.

4.12 Middleware Management

This slide talks about Middleware Management. Let us understand this in detail. Middleware is software that connects or integrates software components across distributed or dissimilar applications and systems. Middleware enables the effective transfer of data between applications, and is therefore essential to services that are dependent on multiple applications or data sources. Middleware Management can be performed as part of an Application Management function or as part of a Technical Management function. The functionality provided by middleware will include Providing transfer mechanisms of data from various applications or data sources Sending work to another application or procedure for processing. Transmitting data or information to other systems, such as sourcing data for publication on websites (e.g. Publishing Incident status information). This also includes Releasing updated software modules across distributed environments, Collation and distribution of system messages and instructions, for example Events or operational scripts that need to run on remote devices. Multicast setup with networks (Multicast is the delivery of information to a group of destinations simultaneously using the most efficient delivery route) and Managing queue sizes. Let us now look at Internetor web support management activity.

4.13 Middleware Management

In the previous slide we discussed about the functionality of middleware software. Here in this slide we will learn about middleware management activities. Some of the activities include: Working as part of service design and transition to ensure that the appropriate middleware solutions are chosen and that they can perform optimally when they are deployed Ensuring the correct operation of middleware through monitoring and control Detecting and resolving incidents related to middleware Maintaining and updating middleware, including licensing and installing new versions Defining and maintaining information about how applications are linked through middleware. Even though this is part of configuration management system, the input and the knowledge should be maintained from the middleware management perspective.

4.14 Internet And Web Management

Internet or Web Support management is also another activity of Service operations. Let us learn about this in detail: Many organizations conduct much of their business through the Internet and are therefore heavily dependent upon the availability and performance of their websites. In such cases a separate Internet or Web Support team or department will be desirable and justified. The responsibilities of such a team or department incorporate both Intranet and Internet and are likely to include Defining architectures for Internet and web services like development, Design, architecture etc., Defining standards for development and management of web-based applications, content, websites and web pages. It is done during Service Design, testing, implementation and maintenance of websites. This will include the architecture of websites and the mapping of content to be made available. In many organizations, web management will include the editing of content to be posted onto the web, managing all web development and management applications and will work in liaison and advice to web-content teams within the business. Content may reside in applications or storage devices, which implies close liaison with Application Management and other Technical Management teams and also with the supplier management. • Third-level support for internet/web-related incidents • Support for interfaces with back-end and legacy systems. This will often mean working with members of the application development and management teams to ensure secure access and consistency of functionality • Monitoring and management of website performance and including heartbeat testing, user experience simulation, benchmarking, on-demand load balancing, virtualization • Website availability, resilience and security will form part of the overall information security management of the organization. Let us now move on to our next activity on Facilities management..

4.15 Facilities And Data Center Management

So far, we have discussed on various activitiesof service operations, in this slide we will learn about Facilities Management. Facilities Management refers to the management of the physical environment infrastructure of IT Operations, usually located in Data Centers or computer rooms. This is a vast and complex area where its key role and activities would include Building Management, which refers to the maintenance and upkeep of the buildings that house the IT staff and Data Center. Typical activities include cleaning, waste disposal, parking management and access control. The major activities include Equipment Hosting, which ensures that all special requirements are provided for the physical housing of equipment and the teams that support them, handling Power Management, which refers to managing the sourcing and utilization of power sources that are used to keep the facility functional. Please Note that information about the power utilization is important for planning the capacity of new services and new buildings, Environmental Conditioning and Alert Systems such as tsunami alerts, earthquake alarm, smoke detection and fire suppression, water, heating and cooling systems, etc. Employees Safety is concerned with compliance with all legislation, standards and policies relative to the safety of employees. Physical Access Control refers to ensuring that the facility is only accessed by authorized personnel and that any unauthorized access is detected and managed. Shipping and Receiving refers to the management of all equipment, furniture, mail, etc. That leaves or enters the building. It ensures that only appropriate items are entering or leaving the building and that they are routed to the correct party.

4.16 Data Centre Strategies

In the previous slide we discussed about main components of facilities management. This slide is about the data centre strategies. Managing a data centre is far more than hosting an open space where technical groups install and manage equipment, using their own approaches and procedures. Data centre operations are governed by strategic and design decisions for management and control and are executed by operators. This requires a number of key factors to be put in place like Data centre automation which reduces the need for manual operators and which monitor and track the status of the facility and all IT operations at all times. Policy based management defines the rules of automation and resource allocation are managed by policy, rather than having to go through complex change procedures every time processing is moved from one resource to another. Real time services like 24 hours a day, 7 days a week Capacity management of environmental factors which covers physical environment factors such as floor space, cooling and power need to be managed in terms of their available capacities and workloads to ensure that shortfalls in these areas do not create any incidents or generate unplanned costs. Standardization of equipment provides greater ease of management and consistent levels of performance of service and also reduces variety of technical expertise required to manage equipment in the data centre and services. SOAs or service oriented architecture define where service components can be reused, interchanged and replaced very quickly and with no business impact. This will make it possible for data centre to be highly responsive in meeting changing business demands without having to go through lengthy and involved re-engineering and re-architecting. Virtualization means IT services are delivered using an ever changing set of equipment geared to meet the current demand. Remote monitoring, control and management equipment and systems will be essential to manage virtualization environment.

4.17 Operational Activities Of Processes Covered In Other Lifecycle Stages

A number of operational activities are performed in various processes covered in other lifecycle stages. In the next few slides we shall be discussing the operational activities performed in the following processes : • Change Management • Service Asset And Configuration Management • Release And Deployment Management • Capacity Management • Demand Management • Availability Management • Knowledge Management • Financial Management For IT Services • IT Service Continuity Management; and • Service Level Management. Let us learn each process in detail in the next few slides, beginning with Change management.

4.18 Change Management

Now, let us learn about the operational activities carried out by the Change Management process. Change Management is primarily covered in the Service Transition publication, but there are some aspects of Change Management which Service Operation staff will be involved with, on a day-to-day basis. Standard changes or operational changes would require RFC’S to be raised. While any change is being raised, appropriate sign off is required from operation in CAB/ECAB for operational risks and issues. Changes related with operational components will be driven by Change Management. The operational change model will be defined by Change Management. Entire Operational staff has to be well communicated on the change schedule to be prepared for handling issues or inquiries.

4.19 Service Asset And Configuration Management

The activities relating to Service Asset and Configuration Management where service operation staff will be involved are: Informing Service Asset and Configuration Management of any discrepancies found between any physical CIs and their information recorded in the Configuration Management System; Making any amendments necessary to correct discrepancies found with respect to physical CIs and the information in Configuration Management System. This will be performed by service operation staff only under specific authorization from Service Asset and Configuration Management; Labeling and tagging physical assets for easy identification. This will be performed as per naming conventions and guidelines provided by Service Asset and Configuration Management; and finally Assisting Service Asset and Configuration Management with audit activities to validate existence, location, currency and status of service assets and configuration items. Next let’s discuss about Release and deployment.

4.20 Release And Deployment Management

In our last slide we discussed about the operational activities performed by Change Management process. This slide explains us the operational activities carried by release and deployment process. Release and Deployment Management is covered in the Service Transition publication, but there are some aspects of this process which Service Operation staff will be involved with, on a day-to-day basis. Operations will be executing the actual implementation actions of new releases for operational components, under the direction of Release and Deployment Management. Participation in the planning stages of major new releases to advise on Service Operation issues The operation would be responsible for the physical handling of CIs from or to the DML(pronounced as D-M-L) as required to fulfill their operational roles – while adhering to relevant Release and Deployment Management procedures, such as ensure that all items are properly booked out and back in.

4.21 Capacity Management

In our last slide we discussed about the operational activities carried out by Release and Deployment Management process. This slide explains us the operational activities carried by the Capacity Management process. It is important that all the components of the IT Infrastructure should be continually monitored by Event Management so that proactive event detection can be done before failures. Ideally, such monitoring should be automated and thresholds should be set so that exception alerts are raised in good time to allow appropriate avoiding or recovery action to be taken before adverse impact occurs. If an alert is triggered because of capacity issues, or an Incident is raised at the Service Desk or problem triggered the capacity issue, Capacity Management must become involved to identify the cause and find a resolution. Capacity Management has a role in identifying any capacity or performance trends as they become discernible. Further details of actions needed to address such trends are included in the Continual Service Improvement publication. In the storage of Capacity Management data large amounts of data are usually generated through capacity and performance monitoring. For example, a single snapshot of a CPU will show the device to be either ‘busy’ or ‘idle’ – but a summary over, say, a 5-minute period will show the average utilization level over that period, which is a much more meaningful measure of whether the device is able to work comfortably, or whether potential performance problems are likely to occur. Modeling and/or application sizing should be done during the planning and transition phases. Service Operation functions have to act in evaluating the accuracy of the predictions and provide feedback on any issues or discrepancies. Capacity Requirements are calculated during Service Design and Service Transition. A capacity plan forecasting is done to project long term capacity requirements. The capacity plan should be linked to the organization’s financial planning cycle, so that any required expenditure for infrastructure upgrades, enhancements or additions can be included in budget estimates and approved in advance.

4.22 Demand Management

Demand Management is the name given to a number of techniques that can be used to modify demand for a particular resource or service. Some techniques for Demand Management can be planned in advance– and these are covered in more detail in the Service Design publication. However, there are other aspects of Demand Management that are of a more operational nature, requiring shorter-term action. There may be occasions when optimization of infrastructure resources is needed to maintain or improve performance or throughput. This can often be done through Workload Management, which is a generic term to cover such actions as adjusting the job scheduling, moving the workload from one location or CI to another etc.

4.23 Availability Management

This slide explains us the operational activities carried by Availability Management process. Service availability is designed during Design and transition phases. Service Operation is responsible for actually making the IT service available to the specified users at the required time and at the agreed levels. Service operation is the phase where actual services can be checked against the agreed requirements. This will also involve the review of maintenance activities. Service Design will define detailed maintenance schedules and activities, which are required to keep IT services functioning at the required level of performance and availability. Problems could be the result of any number of factors, one of which is poor Design. Problem reviews therefore may include opportunities to identify improvements to the Design of IT services, which will include availability and capacity improvement. Dedicated Availability Management staff will be Involved in specific initiatives using techniques such as Service Failure Analysis (SFA), Component Failure Impact Analysis (CFIA), or Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) or as members of Technical Observation (TO) activities – either as part of the follow-up to major problems or as part of an ongoing service improvement program. Let us move to the next slide on operational activities carried by the knowledge management process.

4.24 Knowledge Management

Let us now proceed to look at the operational activities carried by the knowledge management process. All data and information for future Service Operation activities should be properly gathered, stored and assessed. Relevant data, metrics and information should be passed to the management and other Service Lifecycle phases so that it can feed into the knowledge and wisdom layers of the organization’s Service Knowledge Management System. Key repositories of Service Operation, which have been frequently mentioned, are the CMS and the KEDB, but this must be widened out to include all of the Service Operation teams, departments, and documentation(such as operations manuals, procedures manuals, work instructions, etc). In the next slide we will learn about the operational activities carried by IT financial management.

4.25 Financial Management For IT Services

Financial Management for IT Services, though a Service Strategy process, has interfaces with all other stages of the service lifecycle. Some of the Financial Management activities where Service Operation staff involvement is highly essential are : • Providing support for the overall IT Budgeting and Accounting system as well as Charging system. The management teams should properly plan the capital expenditure budgets and operational expenditure budgets pertaining to Service Operation and submit them well on time. • The Service Operation managers should participate in regular financial reviews organized by Financial Management to track expenditures against budgets and fulfill actions assigned. • The Service Operation teams must be aware of proposed cost reduction measures by business. They should participate in meeting and discussions held in this regard and contribute to overall decisions.

4.26 IT Service Continuity Management

In our last slide we discussed about the operational activities taken by IT financial management process. This slide explains the operational activities carried by IT service Continuity management process. As we are aware that Service Operation functions are responsible for the testing and execution of the system and service recovery plans as determined in the IT Service Continuity Plans for the organization. In addition, managers of all Service Operation functions must be on the Business Continuity Central Coordination team. Service Operation functions must be involved in Risk assessment, using its knowledge of the infrastructure and techniques such as CFIA and access to information in the CMS to identify single points of failure or other high-risk situations. It will also be involved in Execution of any Risk Management measures that are agreed, e.g. Countermeasures, or increased resilience to components of the infrastructures, etc. Service operation will be responsible to provide assistance in writing the actual recovery plans for systems and services under its control Service operation will actively participate in testing of the plans such as involvement in off-site testing, simulations etc. on an ongoing basis under the direction of the IT Service Continuity Manager (ITSCM). The Service Desk will play a key role in communicating with staff, customers and users during an actual disaster

4.27 Information Security Management

Information Security Management has overall responsibility for setting policies, standards and procedures to ensure the protection of the organization’s assets, data, information and IT services. The Service Operation teams play a crucial role in executing these policies, standards and procedures and work closely with Information Security Management teams. The areas where Service Operation teams support Information Security Management are : • Operation staffs perform specific policing activities like checking of system logs, and event and monitoring alerts. They also take care of intrusion detection and reporting of actual or potential breaches. The staff is also responsible for shutting down or removing access to compromised systems, monitoring and controlling physical access to IT assets by third-party organizations and escorting visitors into sensitive areas and controlling their access. • Service Operation teams provide improvement suggestions on various aspects of information security. They also provide technical support in investigating security incidents and submitting reports required as evidence relating to security breaches. • Granting privileged access to authorized key technical staff, physical control to secured areas and managing third-party or visitor access requirements are some operational security control activities performed by Service Operation teams. • Screening and vetting of service operation staff, suppliers, and third-party contractors as per organizational policies and requirements is sometimes performed by Service Operation teams. Where required, appropriate confidentiality and non-disclosure agreements are also obtained from these people. • Service operation staff undergoes trainings and awareness sessions on organization’s security policy, procedures and requirements conducted by Information Security Management teams. • Service operation teams ensure inclusion of relevant security clauses and requirements while documenting their own policies, procedures, manuals and work-instructions. Next, let’s discuss about Service level management.

4.28 Service Level Management

Service Level Management plays a significant role during Service Design phase. This process is responsible for defining, negotiating and documenting the service level agreements. Following the agreement it monitors and reports service level achievements and conducts review meetings with the customers to identify any improvements required. The Service Operation staffs contribute to this process by performing certain importing activities. • The Service Operation teams execute monitoring activities through the event management process that can provide early detection of service level breaches; • The Incident management priorities and required resolution targets are guided by service level targets and the support teams ensure meeting these requirements while resolving incidents; • Problem management activities contribute to the improved attainment of service level targets as they proactively and reactively try to identify recurring incidents as well as faults and errors in the IT infrastructure; and • Service level agreements applicable to access management for providing access to services are considered while executing request fulfilment activities. Proceeding to the next slide, we learn about Improvement of operational activities.

4.29 Improvement Of Operational Activities

In line with the continual service improvement objectives, Service Operation staff should also be constantly looking for opportunities to identify process improvements for enhancing the quality of IT services being provided. The areas where Service Operation staff can contribute to improvements are : • Automation of manual tasks – by examining all manual routine operations and identifying cost effective automation tools and technologies. • Reviewing makeshift activities or procedures – where short-term makeshift activities have been introduced, service operation staff must ensure timely review of these activities and replace them with efficient long-term solutions. • Operational Audits – regular internal and external audits must be planned to identify and eliminate non-conformances as well as to ensure that the process performance is satisfactory. • Using Incident and Problem Management – to identify improvements to services being delivered as these are two critical Service Operation processes which can reflect customer expectations and satisfaction. • Communication – Service Operation performance is directly dependent on formal and regular communication between teams responsible for design, support and operation of services. Improved communication strategy and activities will directly lead to improved Service delivery. • Education and Trainings – educating operations staff on the business objectives and outcomes that IT supports and regular trainings on appropriate skills is essential for improving the efficiency of Service Operation. With this we have come to the end of this learning unit. Let’s summarize in the next slide.

4.30 Summary

In this learning unit 4, we discussed about: 1.Common Service Operation Activities 2.Operational Activities in other Lifecycle Stages including: Change Management Service Asset and Configuration Management Release and Deployment Management Capacity Fulfillment Demand Management Availability Management Knowledge Management Financial Management for IT Services IT Service Continuity Management Information Security Management Service Level Management 3.Improvement of Operational Activities Before you proceed to learning unit 5 - Organizing for Service operation, do not forget the quiz section!

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  • PMP, PMI, PMBOK, CAPM, PgMP, PfMP, ACP, PBA, RMP, SP, and OPM3 are registered marks of the Project Management Institute, Inc.

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