ITIL Certification Course Overview

This ITIL foundation course provides you with a firm understanding of the ITIL 4 framework, core concepts and terminologies of ITIL service lifecycle. By the end of this ITIL certification, you will understand how ITIL evolved to adopt modern technologies and operational processes as well as the necessary concepts in a service management framework.

ITIL Training Key Features

100% Money Back Guarantee
100% money-back guarantee*

Our training course comes with a 100% money-back guarantee. Simplilearn believes in our highly effective blended learning methodology and its ability to provide learners with the knowledge and confidence to pass the ITIL4 F exam in the first attempt. If you do not pass the ITIL4 F exam on the first attempt, we will refund the course fee to you.

No questions asked refund*

At Simplilearn, we value the trust of our patrons immensely. But, if you feel that a course does not meet your expectations, we offer a 7-day money-back guarantee. Just send us a refund request via email within 7 days of purchase and we will refund 100% of your payment, no questions asked!
  • 19 PDUs for self-paced learning
  • 22 PDUs for online classroom flexi pass offered
  • 30 chapter-end quizzes and 2 industry case studies
  • Two simulation exams
  • Exam voucher included

Skills Covered

  • ITIL key concepts
  • ITIL central principles
  • ITIL process models
  • Service level management
  • Customer experience improvements
  • ITSM efficiency
  • 15 ITIL best practices

Benefits

The ITIL certification is a requirement for people who want to understand the concept of ITIL frameworks and enhance the quality of IT Service Management. ITIL certified professionals can earn up to 40-percent more than their non-certified peers.

  • Designation
  • Annual Salary
  • Hiring Companies
  • Annual Salary
    $94KMin
    $124KAverage
    $159KMax
    Source: Glassdoor
    Hiring Companies
    Adobe
    Amazon
    Barclays
    Accenture
    Cisco
    Source: Indeed
  • Annual Salary
    $98KMin
    $109KAverage
    $144KMax
    Source: Glassdoor
    Hiring Companies
    Accenture
    IBM
    Capgemini
    Source: Indeed
  • Annual Salary
    $60KMin
    $84KAverage
    $118KMax
    Source: Glassdoor
    Hiring Companies
    IBM
    Google
    Oracle
    Source: Indeed
  • Annual Salary
    45KMin
    $58KAverage
    110KMax
    Source: Glassdoor
    Hiring Companies
    Oracle
    Capgemini
    Accenture
    Source: Indeed

Training Options

Self-Paced Learning

$ 399

  • Lifetime access to high-quality self-paced eLearning content curated by industry experts
  • 2 simulation test papers for self-assessment
  • ITIL 4 Foundation exam voucher included
  • 24x7 learner assistance and support

Blended Learning

$ 799

  • Everything in Self-Paced Learning, plus
  • 90 days of flexible access to online classes
  • Live, online classroom training by top instructors and practitioners
  • Classes starting in Bangkok from:-
8th Aug: Weekend Class
22nd Aug: Weekend Class

Corporate Training

Customized to your team's needs

  • Blended learning delivery model (self-paced eLearning and/or instructor-led options)
  • Flexible pricing options
  • Enterprise grade Learning Management System (LMS)
  • Enterprise dashboards for individuals and teams
  • 24x7 learner assistance and support

ITIL Course Curriculum

Eligibility

This ITIL V4 certification training course is best suited for IT executives, IT architects, operations managers, IT audit managers, IT planners and consultants, database administrators, ITSM trainers, service delivery professionals, quality analysts, application management and development teams, and IT managers. Obtaining the ITIL V4 foundation certification is available to both seasoned IT professionals and those fresh in their IT career.
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Pre-requisites

To take the ITIL 4 Foundation Certification exam, no prerequisite is required.
Read More

Course Content

  • ITIL® 4 Foundation

    Preview
    • Lesson 01 - Course Introduction

      08:02Preview
      • 1.01 Course Introduction
        08:02
    • Lesson 02 - Key Concepts of Service Management

      18:01Preview
      • 2.01 Key Concepts of Service Management
        00:31
      • 2.02 Service Management
        01:39
      • 2.03 Stakeholders of Service Management
        01:25
      • 2.04 Service Consumer Roles
        02:22
      • 2.05 Products and Services
        00:44
      • 2.06 Service Offerings
        01:56
      • 2.07 Service Relationships
        02:31
      • 2.08 Value Outcomes, Costs, and Risks Service Relationships
        02:17
      • 2.09 Risks
        01:38
      • 2.10 Utility and Warranty
        01:51
      • 2.11 Key Takeaways
        01:07
      • Knowledge Check
    • Lesson 03 - Four Dimensions of Service Management

      22:27Preview
      • 3.01 Four Dimensions of Service Management
        00:31
      • 3.02 Dimensions of Service Management
        01:21
      • 3.03 Organizations and People
        02:33
      • 3.04 Information and Technology
        03:10
      • 3.05 Information and Technology Regulations
        00:47
      • 3.06 Selecting the Right Technology
        01:19
      • 3.07 Factors Influencing Technology
        01:07
      • 3.08 Cloud Computing
        01:20
      • 3.09 Partners and Suppliers
        01:40
      • 3.10 Organization Strategy
        02:12
      • 3.11 Value Streams and Processes
        02:12
      • 3.12 Processes
        01:04
      • 3.13 Factors Affecting Service Providers
        02:29
      • 3.14 Key Takeaways
        00:42
      • Knowledge Check
    • Lesson 04 - The ITIL Service Value System

      30:08Preview
      • 4.01 The ITIL Service Value System
        00:31
      • 4.02 Service Value System
        01:53
      • 4.03 Components of SVS
        00:59
      • 4.04 Organizational Silos
        02:27
      • 4.05 ITIL Guiding Principles
        01:26
      • 4.06 Focus on Value
        01:58
      • 4.07 Applying the Principle - Focus on Value
        01:14
      • 4.08 Start Where You Are
        01:55
      • 4.09 Applying the Principle - Start Where You Area
        01:23
      • 4.10 Progress Iteratively with Feedback
        01:48
      • 4.11 Applying the Principle - Progress Iteratively with Feedback
        00:59
      • 4.12 Collaborate and Promote Visibility
        02:00
      • 4.13 Applying the Principle - Collaborate and Promote Visibility
        01:02
      • 4.14 Think and Work Holistically
        00:29
      • 4.15 Applying the Principle - Think and Work Holistically
        01:17
      • 4.16 Keep It Simple and Practical
        00:46
      • 4.17 Applying the Principle - Keep It Simple and Practical
        01:08
      • 4.18 Optimize and Automate
        01:49
      • 4.19 Applying the Principle - Optimize and Automate
        01:41
      • 4.20 Principle Interaction
        02:48
      • 4.21 Key Takeaways
        00:35
      • knowledge Check
    • Lesson 05 - The Service Value Chain

      12:39Preview
      • 5.01 The Service Value Chain
        00:35
      • 5.02 The Service Value Chain Overview
        01:07
      • 5.03 Plan Activity
        01:15
      • 5.04 Improve Activity
        01:09
      • 5.05 Engage Activity
        02:02
      • 5.06 Design and Transition Activity
        01:14
      • 5.07 Obtain or Build Activity
        01:23
      • 5.08 Deliver and Support Activity
        01:22
      • 5.09 Service Value Streams
        01:11
      • 5.10 Key Takeaways
        01:21
      • Knowledge Check
    • Lesson 06 - ITIL Management Practices

      52:03Preview
      • 6.01 ITIL Management Practices
        00:42
      • 6.02 Continual Improvement
        02:55
      • 6.03 Information Security Management
        02:50
      • 6.04 Relationship Management
        02:29
      • 6.05 Supplier Management
        04:15
      • 6.06 Supplier Management Activities
        02:16
      • 6.07 Change Enablement
        03:08
      • 6.08 Incident Management
        02:23
      • 6.09 IT Asset Management
        03:22
      • 6.10 IT Asset Management Activities
        02:16
      • 6.11 Monitoring and Event Management
        02:24
      • 6.12 Problem Management
        03:52
      • 6.13 Release Management
        02:28
      • 6.14 Service Configuration Management
        02:30
      • 6.15 Service Desk
        03:33
      • 6.16 Service Level Management
        03:21
      • 6.17 Service Request Management
        03:11
      • 6.18 Deployment Management
        02:32
      • 6.19 ITIL Terms
        00:53
      • 6.20 Key Takeaways
        00:43
      • Knowledge Check

ITIL Exam & Certification

ITIL® 4 Foundation Certification Training in Bangkok, Thailand
  • What is the format for the ITIL Certification Exam?

    To receive the ITIL 4 Foundation Certification, you must:

    1. Complete the certification training
    2. Take the ITIL 4 Foundation Certification exam
    3. Score at least 65 per cent on the exam (26 correct answers out of 40 questions) in 60 minutes

  • What is the ITIL 4 Foundation Certification?

    ITIL 4 Foundation is the most widely acknowledged entry-level ITIL certification available for IT professionals. This newest training for the ITIL framework is designed to introduce learners to the management of modern IT-enabled services, including key concepts and common language used in the ITIL services lifecycle.
     

  • How long will it take to receive my ITIL® 4 Foundation exam results?

    You will receive the ITIL 4 Foundation results from 10-15 days after you take the exam. 
     

  • How do I schedule/book my exam?

    Please click the below link for information regarding the booking process.
    https://www.simplilearn.com/ice9/about_course_images/Raise_exam_request_through_LMS.pdf

  • Once I have booked my exam, can I get a refund?

    Once you have booked your exam and the voucher has been issued, it can not be refunded.

  • Do you provide any practice tests as part of this course?

    Yes, we provide 1 practice test as part of our course to help you prepare for the actual certification exam. You can try this free ITIL 4 Practice Exam Questions to understand the type of tests that are part of the course curriculum.

  • What is the process of appearing for ITIL 4 Foundation Take2?

    If you have enrolled for the course  ITIL 4 Foundation with Take2 , you are eligible for a free retake ITIL 4 Foundation exam voucher, in case you could not clear the ITIL 4 Foundation exam in the first attempt.

    Once you enroll for the course ITIL 4 Foundation with Take2, you will receive  the web proctor vouchers of ITIL 4 Foundation, within 24 hrs of receiving the result of your first failed attempt. You will need to book the examination within six months from the date of purchase, failing to do so will result in you repurchasing the examination.

    Note: This applies to only those candidates who have enrolled for the course ITIL 4 Foundation with Take2.

  • Until when can I procure exam voucher from Simplilearn?

    Your exam voucher fee is included in the price of this course. However, you must procure the exam voucher within six months from the date of course purchase. In case the exam fee goes up and you have not yet booked the exam, you will need to pay the difference in amount to Simplilearn.

  • What is the validity of my exam voucher?

    Exam vouchers are valid for one year from the date of issuance. If you do not book the exam within one year from the purchase of a voucher, you will need to buy the voucher again per the actual price.

Reviews

  • Samhita Sarkar

    Samhita Sarkar

    Project Manager, Kolkata

    I think the course is very well structured, and I am thankful to Simplilearn for assigning an outstanding trainer. It's been an enjoyable learning journey. Real-world examples during the sessions help us think a little out of the box. Thanks again.

  • Kaustubh Yelve

    Kaustubh Yelve

    Mumbai

    The training sessions were extremely comprehensive and well planned. The course content was focused on industry standards. Mock tests helped us to assess our knowledge and played a crucial role in making us exam ready. Thank you, Simplilearn!

  • Sundaresan Sethuraman

    Sundaresan Sethuraman

    Chennai

    The course is systematic, easy to follow, and the trainer follows a step-by-step approach, which makes it easier to grasp concepts.

  • Sundaresan Sethuraman

    Sundaresan Sethuraman

    Chennai

    The course is systematic, easy to follow, and the trainer follows a step-by-step approach, which makes it easier to grasp concepts.

  • Rajen Ghosh

    Rajen Ghosh

    Lucknow

    I completed my ITIL certification from Simplilearn. The certification helped me to get promoted from technical support engineer to the position of Network Senior Manager. Thank you Simplilearn!

  • Anup Nair

    Anup Nair

    Bangalore

    Simplilearn's ITIL certification has helped me in my career progression from Team Lead to Assistant Manager with 35% hike in my salary. It is one of the best solutions for online learning.

  • Vikas D Pandey

    Vikas D Pandey

    Mumbai

    Thanks to the global practices of ITIL I learned from Simplilearn, I now guide my team in offering better client service.

  • Efren Jr Bernardino

    Efren Jr Bernardino

    Quezon City

    ITIL course from Simplilearn helped me to improve my service towards my clients. The learning was helpful and knowledgeable. Thank you, Simplilearn.

  • Sameer Marathe

    Sameer Marathe

    Pune

    Simplilearn provided comprehensive online study material. It was informative and easy to understand. The certification training took me from Project Manager to a senior position along with a good hike. Overall, Simplilearn an excellent platform to provide online training. Thank you Simplilearn!

  • Shashank Mishra

    Shashank Mishra

    Luxembourg

    The training was beneficial & it was very interactive. I was able to correlate my daily jobs & based on the trainer inputs. I can now figure out how I can best improve the Service Management Framework as well.

  • Sk Shabbir

    Sk Shabbir

    Kolkata

    Simplilearn's ITIL course was a great experience. The course content is simplified and great for learning. The customer service is excellent and always available for a chat. This certification has helped my career path with a role change from IT Support Engineer to IT Support Officer along with a salary hike. Thanks, Simplilearn.

Why Simplilearn

Simplilearn’s Blended Learning model brings classroom learning experience online with its world-class LMS. It combines instructor-led training, self-paced learning and personalized mentoring to provide an immersive learning experience.

  • Self-Paced Online Video

    A 360-degree learning approach that you can adapt to your learning style

  • Live Virtual Classroom

    Engage and learn more with these live and highly-interactive classes alongside your peers

  • 24/7 Teaching Assistance

    Keep engaged with integrated teaching assistance in your desktop and mobile learning

  • Online Practice Labs

    Projects provide you with sample work to show prospective employers

  • Applied Projects

    Real-world projects relevant to what you’re learning throughout the program

  • Learner Social Forums

    A support team focused on helping you succeed alongside a peer community

ITIL Training FAQs

  • Who are the trainers for live classroom training?

    All of our highly qualified trainers are ITIL®-certified with more than 15 years of experience in training and working in the IT domain.

  • Is the examination fee included in the course fee?

    Yes. The examination fee is included in the course fee.

  • Does my ITIL® 4 Foundation certificate expire?

    The ITIL® 4 Foundation certificate does not expire.

  • How does the online classroom training work?

    Online classroom training for ITIL® is conducted via live streaming and run by an ITIL-certified trainer with more than 15 years of work and training experience. The class is attended by a global audience to enrich your learning experience.

  • ITIL certification levels, salary, and career benefits in-store

    The IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL®) certification is a globally recognized IT service management certification, distributed by Axelos. The ITIL certification is an entry-level qualification in the field of IT service management.

    Every professional who wants to develop their career in IT Service Management should consider an ITIL Foundation course. Once certified in ITIL Foundation, you will be able to guide a business organization in executing the best IT service management practices along with using IT as a tool for its growth or change.

    Why Get ITIL Certified?

    The ITIL certification is applicable in any organization for training since it is not based on any special technique—offering a wide variety of job opportunities in IT companies. IT professionals will learn to create and implement a variety of best practices of quality management along with IT service management, which in turn will result in better growth of the business. 

    The ITIL Foundation certification is the base for other ITIL certifications and adds two credit points to the qualification scheme of ITIL. This training program helps in increasing the confidence level of the candidates by allowing them to design, implement, and use IT services for the satisfaction of their customers.

    The ITIL framework helps provide a common language in delivering IT services—including interacting with suppliers and customers more effectively to overcome any challenges between IT and business to achieve targeted results.

    Moreover, the ITIL certification is the best among several other certification courses preferred by professionals of IT service management because it provides basic knowledge about the concepts, core principles, and best practices used in IT service management.

    ITIL Certification Levels

    The ITIL framework presently offers four levels of the ITIL certification.

    Level 1

    The first level of the ITIL certification is ITIL Foundation certification, which focuses on building standard terminology and methodology. Learners will obtain knowledge to support and deliver ITIL services. At this level, candidates understand the basics of ITIL and the ways to implement it in a workplace. Along with a practical approach to IT service management, this certification course also focuses on the approach and standards of quality management.

    Level 2

    The second level of the ITIL certification is the Practitioner level. This level helps improve candidates’ ability to adopt and adapt ITIL within their organizations. ITIL Practitioners learn how to foster a culture of continuous service improvement, as well as how to improve productivity, efficiency, and collaboration between ITSM and the organization as a whole.

    Level 3

    The third level of the ITIL certification is the ITIL Intermediate certification. There are two categories of certification: Service Lifecycle and Service Capability.

    • Service Lifecycle involves a high level focus of management across several processes of ITIL.
    • Service Capability provides specialized and process-level knowledge in one or more ITIL processes.

    Level 4

    The fourth level of the ITIL certification is ITIL Expert certification, which is delivered in modular form. Candidates must have passed the previous levels, proving they have the detailed skills and knowledge to clearly understand the entire system of ITIL. Candidates are allowed to choose from a variety of ITIL processes on the basis of their personal requirements. In order to receive the credential, candidates must possess complete and balanced knowledge of the lifecycle of ITIL service to obtain this certification.

    Level 5

    The fifth level of the ITIL certification is the ITIL Master Level certification, which strengthens and widens the practical application of ITIL knowledge in a variety of settings. The ITIL professionals directly involved in planning, management, and operation of IT service management functions obtain this certification to demonstrate their knowledge. An ITIL Master can describe and justify how they have chosen and used ITIL knowledge, principles, techniques, and methods along with supporting management techniques to achieve the expected business outcome.

    Eligibility for the ITIL certification

    Though anyone working in the IT service industry can take the ITIL Foundation certification course, it is ideal for service delivery professionals, operation managers, production support engineers, and quality analysts. It is the best-suited certification for the IT professionals who want to progress in the IT service sector.

    Career benefits of the ITIL certification

    Once you are a certified ITIL Foundation professional you will be able to contribute to the overall service improvement program of an organization. You will find a number of job opportunities in IT infrastructure management and IT service design after attaining the ITIL certification. 

    Combining an ITIL certification with other certifications can significantly increase one’s salary range. For example, someone with a Cisco certification who earns about $83,000 a year can jump to more than $96,000 with ITIL salary.

    Getting ITIL certified can help boost your career in IT. Ensure you are in top shape for the ITIL 2011 exam with Simplilearn’s ITIL 2011 Foundation certification training. Simplilearn also offers a variety of other ITIL training courses, including ITIL Expert programs.

  • Is this live training, or will I watch pre-recorded videos? What if I miss a session?

    All of the classes are conducted via live online streaming. They are interactive sessions that enable you to ask questions and participate in discussions during class time. We also provide recordings of each session you attend if you miss a session or for future reference.

  • What is the average starting salary for an ITIL® certified professional?

    Combining an ITIL® certification with other certifications can significantly increase your salary range. For example, a Cisco certification holder who earns about $83,000 a year can jump to more than $96,000 in salary with an ITIL certification.

  • What tools do I need to attend the training sessions?

    The tools you’ll need to attend training are:

    • Windows: Windows XP SP3 or higher
    • Mac: OSX 10.6 or higher
    • Internet speed: Preferably 512 Kbps or higher
    • Headset, speakers and microphone: You’ll need headphones or speakers to hear the instruction clearly, as well as a microphone to talk to others. You can use a headset with a built-in microphone, or separate speakers and a microphone.

  • What are the ITIL® certification levels?

    The ITIL Certification Scheme comprises of the following levels:

    • ITIL Foundation
    • ITIL Specialist modules (3)
    • ITIL Strategist
    • ITIL Leader
    • ITIL Master

    One of the main characteristics of the new ITIL 4 certification scheme is that it now
    follows two different designation streams: ITIL Managing Professional (ITIL MP) and ITIL
    Strategic Leader (ITIL SL). These two streams are intended to provide learners with
    greater clarity about how and where they can improve their skills and set them apart
    from peers.


    To become an ITIL® Managing Professional (ITIL MP) learners must complete the
    following modules:

     

    • ITIL 4 Foundation
    • ITIL Specialist: Create, Deliver & Support
    • ITIL Specialist: Drive Stakeholder Value
    • ITIL Specialist: High-Velocity IT
    • ITIL Strategist: Direct, Plan & Improve*


    To become an ITIL Strategic Leader (ITIL SL) learners must complete the following
    modules:

    • ITIL 4 Foundation
    • ITIL Strategist: Direct, Plan & Improve*
    • ITIL Leader: Digital & IT Strategy

    *Universal module for both ITIL® designation streams

    In order to be eligible to become an ITIL Master, learners must have both the ITIL
    Managing Professional (ITIL MP) and ITIL Strategic Leader (ITIL SL) designations.
    Further details about how to become an ITIL Master will be released at a later time studying for the ITIL Foundation exam. 
     

  • What are the main differences between ITIL® V3 V/s ITIL® 4?

    ITIL® 4 should be seen as an expansion of the time-tested ITIL framework, not a replacement. ITIL®4 and ITIL® V3 provide guidance based on the same underlying principles, but ITIL® 4 takes a new approach to present this guidance. While ITIL® 4 retains many of the core elements of ITIL® V3, and much of the existing guidance will be recognizable in parts of ITIL® 4, the new modules are distinct from the old ones.

  • When will ITIL® v3 be discontinued?

    The transition will be a gradual process, allowing our learners to have enough time to move from ITIL® v3 to ITIL 4 and to continue collecting their ITIL v3 Intermediate credits to enable the transition to ITIL Managing Professional. 

  • I have an ITIL® V3 Expert certification. How do I update my certification to the current version?

    If you have achieved six credits or more since your V3 Foundation certification, then it is in your best interest to continue collecting V3 credits to prepare yourself for an easy transition to ITIL 4 and gain the ITIL Managing Professional designation. 
    You will need to reach seventeen credits to be eligible to take the ITIL Managing Professional transition module. 
     

  • What is Global Teaching Assistance?

    Our teaching assistants are a dedicated team of subject matter experts here to help you get certified in your first attempt. They engage students proactively to ensure the course path is being followed and help you enrich your learning experience, from class onboarding to project mentoring and job assistance. Teaching Assistance is available during business hours.
     

  • What is covered under the 24/7 Support Promise?

    We offer 24/7 support through email, chat, and calls. We also have a dedicated team that provides on-demand assistance through our community forum. What’s more, you will have lifetime access to the community forum, even after completion of your course with us.
     

  • Can I cancel my enrollment? Will I get a refund?

    Yes, you can cancel your enrollment. We provide a refund after deducting the administration fee. To learn more, please read our Refund Policy.

  • You offer an exam money back guarantee. How does it work?

    Our training course comes with a 100% money-back guarantee. Simplilearn believes in our highly effective blended learning methodology and its ability to provide learners with the knowledge and confidence to pass the ITIL 4 Foundation exam in the first attempt. If you do not pass the ITIL 4 Foundation exam on the first attempt, Simplilearn will refund the course price to you.
     
    To ensure your success, we strongly recommend that you take the ITIL 4 Foundation exam within a week of the course completion date—or a maximum of 45 days from the completion of the online training. This way, the course materials will be fresh in your mind.
     

    Attempt Time Frame Result Money back
    First Within 45 days of course completion Did Not Pass Refund full course price (including exam fees)

    Refund Process: If you do not pass the exam in the first attempt, Simplilearn will refund the full course price to you. To receive a refund, you must make a request through the Help and Support Forum. You must submit a copy of your scorecard along with the date you completed your online classroom training. Simplilearn will refund the course price within 30 days of receiving all required documentation. We will process the refund using the same method you used to pay for the course.
     

    Terms and Conditions: This money-back guarantee applies only to Simplilearn’s ITIL 4 Foundation instructor-led Training. It is not applicable for Simplilearn’s Self-Paced Learning ITIL 4 Foundation courses. The guarantee is valid only for participants who have paid the entire enrollment fee.

    The guarantee becomes void if:

    • Participants do not take the ITIL 4 Foundation examination within 45 days of unlocking the certificate
    • Participants do not maintain 100% attendance in at least one batch of the 16 Hours of Live Online Classroom Training sessions
    • Participants do not complete the e-learning content. The full online study is required to learn the course materials
    • Participants fail to score at least 80% in both of the available online ITIL 4 Foundation Exam practice tests available at Simplilearn.com on the first attempt 
    • Participants fail to book their exam within 6 months from the date of enrollment 
    • Participants do not follow the instructions of the trainer and do not complete the exercises given in the online classroom training
    • Participants do not submit the required documents to Simplilearn
    • Participants failed to request a refund within 15 days of receiving their results 

  • Disclaimer
  • ITIL® is a registered trade mark of AXELOS Limited, used under permission of AXELOS Limited. All rights reserved. The Swirl logo™ is a trade mark of AXELOS Limited, used under permission of AXELOS Limited. All rights reserved.