Artificial intelligence and automation have become an integral part of our daily lives. Every automation machinery equipped with certain algorithms needs some set of rules for their proper functioning and execution of different tasks. The production system in AI is the collection of those rules which work on different behaviors and settings. These production systems help set up the AI algorithms and look into the proper functioning of the AI software. 

What is a Production System in AI?

A production system in AI, also known as a production rule system, is a framework that can be implemented to create various software programs for executing different tasks. It is a unique and advanced kind of intellectual design that may be used to simulate human problem-solving abilities and build search algorithms for different programs. The AI production system retains tiny quanta referred to as productions, which help in understanding the process of problem-solving abilities

The rule and action are two fundamental elements in each production system. Declarative statements are used to encode the data in production systems. Knowledge representation is used to develop a production system that executes AI applications.

Production of different AI-based systems, such as computer software, mobile applications, and production tools, includes an effective production system. A production system in artificial intelligence provides automation based on a particular set of rules to exhibit particular traits while participating in different situations.

Components of a Production System in AI

A production system in AI is composed of three components:

Global Database

The global database consists of the architectural design of the production system. It is the primary data framework of the system. This database equips all of the skills and data necessary for completing a particular task. 

Temporary and permanent global databases are two different kinds of global databases. The temporary global database is made up of short-term, situation-based actions. Whereas the permanent global database includes specific actions that cannot be modified or changed.

Production Rules

Production rules in AI are a group of rules that apply to information collected from a global database. Each rule has a precondition and a postcondition that the global database must either fulfill or not, depending on the rule. A production rule works effectively if a condition gets processed through it and meets the criteria specified by the global database.

Control System

A control system carries out the decision-making process. The control system determines which suitable rule is to be used and stops computations when a database termination condition is met. The control system settles issues when numerous rules are supposed to be executed simultaneously. The control system approach defines the set of rules that assesses the data from the global database before arriving at the right conclusion.

Features of Production System

The features of the production system in AI are as follows: 


The production system uses an 'If-Then' framework to operate, which makes it visible and user-friendly for everyone. Additionally, this structure makes production systems easier to use by streamlining knowledge representation, improving the understanding of production rules, etc.


Production systems are designed to be completely modular, which implies that they can be broken into pieces that could be revised or customized without impacting the system overall. Data can be regarded as a collection of distinct factors that may be introduced or excluded from the system effectively without causing adverse consequences.


The flexibility to modify rules enables them to be changed to meet objectives. In the beginning, the production system is only given its basic structure. After compiling the specifications, we modify the production system's fundamental framework. This contributes to the gradual enhancement of the production system.


Production systems are reactive, adapting to alterations in their surroundings or problem area. They can recognize changes in the system's condition and act according to the knowledge and guidelines at hand.


The production system's knowledge base contains only pure information. Knowledge is contained in production systems in the format of a human being's conversational language, notably English. There are no programming languages used in its development. 

Production System Rules

The production system rules are designed to direct a machine on how to behave or react to a specific setting. It includes a knowledge database, a set of rules and control systems. The production rules are elements of knowledge generally represented in the form of 

  • IF conditions 
  • ELSE actions

The condition component of the statement is also known as the if part, antecedent, premise, or the left side of the rule. The action component is also called the else part, succedent, conclusion, consequent or the right side of the rule. 

The actions are completed when the condition stands true, and the rule is fired.

Advantages and Disadvantages of a Production System

A production system has both pros and cons to it. Some of the advantages and disadvantages of a production system in AI are discussed below. 


The advantages of the production system in AI are as follows: 

  1. Rather than using algorithms, the system employs pattern-directed control, which is more adaptable.
  2. An exceptional and effective model that mimics human beings problem-solving abilities.
  3. Advantageous in real-time applications and surroundings.
  4. They have effective approaches for troubleshooting. It takes minimal time to identify and fix issues in the system.
  5. The system can be changed without hurting the production rules.


Some of the disadvantages of a production system in AI are as follows: 

  1. Unlike specialized AI systems, a basic production system built around predefined rules is inadequate for learning from experience. 
  2. The control system determines the optimal production rule to be used when several competing rules are in use. This may result in a decrease in system efficiency.
  3. The lack of output results in archived data in the production system might hinder training.
  4. It is highly challenging to evaluate the control flow inside a production system.

Classes of a Production System

The classes of a production system are: 

Monotonic Production System

A monotonic production system allows a system to run multiple rules simultaneously. In this kind of production system, when two rules have been chosen simultaneously, the execution of one rule will never block the execution of the other rule.

Partially Commutative Production System

It is a production system wherein the execution of a series of rules converts one condition into another. Then any permissible permutation of those rules likewise converts one state into another.

Non-Monotonic Production System

This kind of production method increases the efficiency of problem-solving. These systems can be used without having to go back and fix previous errors in execution. These production systems are required to find a productive approach in terms of implementation.

Commutative Production System

Commutative systems are useful when the order of operations is irrelevant. A communicative production system serves as a tool for problems where minor changes can have a significant effect on the final result. 

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Artificial intelligence is growing rapidly, understanding human behavior and is progressing to mimic human-thinking abilities. The production system in AI plays a significant role in directing the automation systems with a certain set of rules to adapt to a specific setting. Artificial intelligence is a broad discipline, and the production system is a part of this broad spectrum. Enroll in Caltech Post Graduate Program In AI and Machine Learning and learn about AI and its various components. 


1. What is meant by the production system?

A production system can be considered a cognitive framework that illustrates multiple rules. It helps make the best choice and generalizes a behavioral pattern that serves as a framework for evaluating different situations. The production system in AI implements pre-set behavior to observe a situation and recommend a course of action.

2. What are the elements of the production system?

The elements of the production system are the global database, production rules and control.

3. What is the role of the production system?

A production system uses a set of rules and methods for performing them that reinforce artificial intelligence. They facilitate the development of artificial intelligence-based software and machine automation. They also improve the speed and accuracy of solving conflicts in automated systems using IF-THEN conditions.

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