PRINCE2 Foundation and Practitioner - Quality Theme Tutorial

6.1 Quality Theme

Hello and welcome to PRINCE2 Foundation Certification Course offered by Simplilearn. This lesson is about Quality, which is one of the seven themes of PRINCE2 methodology. This theme is based on the principle “Focus on Products”. Let us discuss the objectives of this lesson in the next screen.

6.2 Objectives

After completing this lesson, you will be able to: Define the key terms of Quality theme Explain the PRINCE2® approach to Quality theme Define the roles and responsibilities in Quality theme Let’s look at the purpose of quality theme in the next screen.

6.3 Purpose of Quality Theme

Every project produces a unique product or service. The goal is to generate a product as per the user’s requirements. A check should always be carried out to find out whether the product satisfies the acceptance criteria or not. The purpose of this theme is to define and implement the means by which the project will create and verify products that are fit for purpose. For example, when constructing a house, arranging a Christmas party at a house or designing a new website, the focus is always on products that confirm to a certain level of quality. A certain amount of cost is incurred while performing quality management activities. This cost is dependent on the amount of quality criteria specified for a product. More the criteria, the more will be the costs incurred and time required verifying quality in the product. Let’s discuss the definition of quality in the next screen.

6.4 Quality Term—Definition

Understanding some of the following key definitions associated with Quality is important to fully grasp this topic. Quality is generally defined as the totality of features and inherent or assigned characteristics of a product, person, process, service and/or system that bear on its ability to demonstrate that it meets expectations or satisfies stated needs, requirements or specifications. In other words, Quality ensures that resulting product of the project meets the need for which the project was undertaken. Quality management is defined as the coordinated activities to direct and control an organisation with regard to quality. A Quality Management System is defined as the complete set of quality standards, procedures and responsibilities for a site or organisation. Site or organisation is external to the project and sponsors the project work. In fact, site can be considered as the company where the project is being performed. Within a project if there are separate customer and supplier businesses, then each may have its own quality management system. However the quality management strategy should be defined while initiating the project and it should include the quality management procedure. We will continue our discussion of the key definitions associated with Quality in the next screen.

6.5 Quality Terms—Definition (contd.)

Other key definitions associated with Quality are: Quality Planning refers to defining the products required of the project, with their respective quality criteria, quality methods and quality responsibilities of those involved. This means, identifying what needs to be the output (i.e. product of the project), who will ensure the project develops the product specified and how to ensure it. Quality Control focuses on the operational techniques and activities used by those involved in the project to fulfil the requirement for quality. It helps in identifying the ways of eliminating causes of unsatisfactory performance. Some examples of quality control activities are ‘testing’ and ‘inspection’. In the next screen we will discuss the last key definition in quality theme, which is Quality assurance.

6.6 Quality Terms—Definition (contd.)

Quality Assurance ensures the project’s direction and management are adequate for the nature of the project and it complies with the standards and policies of the corporate management. In fact, Quality Assurance activities are outside the scope of PRINCE2 as it is the responsibility of the corporate or programme management organisation. Quality Assurance is about independently checking that the organisation and processes are in place for quality planning and control. Quality assurance involves contributions that are independent of the project management team, whereas quality planning and quality control are undertaken by the project. In the following screen, we will compare project assurance with quality assurance.

6.7 Project vs. Quality Assurance

Quality assurance is not a part of project work; it is independent of the project management team. Quality assurance is the responsibility of the corporate or program organisation. Quality Assurance should not be confused with Project Assurance. The difference between Quality Assurance and Project Assurance is listed in the table on the screen. Project Assurance refers specifically to the Project Board’s accountability for assuring to the project’s stakeholders that the project is conducted appropriately. This is therefore, a responsibility within the project organisation and specifically the responsibility of Project Board. While, the Quality Assurance is the responsibility of corporate/programme management and so it is outside the project organisation. Quality Assurance provide assurance to the wider corporate or programme organisation that the project is being conducted appropriately, and complies with relevant corporate or programme management standards and policies. The Project Assurance is the role that PRINCE2 defines in the “Organisation” theme, while Quality Assurance is a function within the corporate that maintains the quality management systems. Project Assurance must be independent of the project manager, project support, team managers and their teams, while the Quality Assurance is performed by personnel who are independent of the project. In other words, it is performed by personnel who are not a member of the project management team. Project Assurance is a responsibility of the Project Board, therefore undertaken within the project. Quality Assurance, however, is the responsibility of the corporate or programme management organisation, therefore external to the project. Quality Assurance as a corporate or programme management function could be used by the Project Board as part of its project assurance regime (for example, having Quality Assurance perform a peer review). Quality Assurance would look for (or require) effective project assurance as one of the indicators that the project is being conducted. In the next screen we will look at the PRINCE2 approach to quality.

6.8 PRINCE2® Approach to Quality

The image on the screen is one of the most important diagrams of PRINCE2 methodology explaining how quality management is carried out in a project. This theme is based on the principle “Focus on products” and PRINCE2 recommends systematic approach for achieving quality. The image has two parts, the first part is Quality Planning and the second one is Quality Control. Let us discuss these two parts of Quality Audit Trial in detail in the subsequent screens. The whole quality theme is about understanding this diagram that explains PRINCE2 approach to quality. We will look at quality planning in the next screen.

6.9 Quality Planning

The aim of quality planning is to ensure that there is an agreement with the project board on the overall quality expectations and the products required with their quality criteria. It is undertaken at project level. It’s also the purpose of quality planning to outline the means by which quality will be achieved and assessed. Quality planning is also about ascertaining the acceptance criteria based on which products of the project are going to be adjudged. Once there is an agreement with the Project Board on quality and how to measure it, the next step is to communicate the same with all the project stakeholders, so that they have a mutual understanding of what the project is aiming out to achieve. Quality planning also outlines all activities that would be carried out as part of quality control to ensure that products are fit for the purpose. It also describes the steps following which the user will formally accept the products. To evade misgivings regarding the quality of the product, PRINCE2 proposes quality responsibilities for each product. We will continue our discussion on quality planning in the following screen.

6.10 Quality Planning (contd.)

Quality planning ensures that there is an agreement with the Project Board on the overall quality expectations and the products required with their quality criteria. The step by step approach of achieving quality is as follows: Understand customer’s quality expectations, Define the Project’s Acceptance Criteria, Document customer’s quality expectations and the project’s acceptance criteria in the “Project Product Description”, Define a Quality Management Strategy, Write Product Descriptions and Set up the Quality Register. Project Product Description refers to the output of the project as a whole. So the main output of the project is referred as the project’s product. This “Project Product Description” can be broken down into modules and “Product Description” is a term used to describe each of the modules. In the next screen we will look at the quality expectations of a customer.

6.11 Customer’s Quality Expectations

The customer’s quality expectation is a statement about the quality expected by the customer from the project’s product. The customer quality expectations are defined and agreed early in the ‘Starting up a Project’ process. The expectations are captured in discussions with the customer and then refined for inclusion in the “Project Product Description”. Customer’s quality expectations define the key quality requirements for the project product. The next step is to define standards and processes that are necessary to achieve the specified quality and determine measurements for assessing the quality of the project’s product. The customer’s quality expectations need to be reviewed at the end of each management stage. In the following screen, we will discuss the considerations for the customer’s quality expectations.

6.12 Customer’s Quality Expectations—Considerations

The customer’s quality expectations considers the characteristics of the key quality requirements (e.g. fast/slow, large/small, national/global) (read as fast or slow, large or small, national or global), the elements of the customer’s quality management system that should be used and any other standards that should be used. In the next screen we will discuss the acceptance criteria.

6.13 Acceptance Criteria

In the project’s acceptance criteria the following have to be ensured: All criteria are measureable and individually realistic. The criteria are compatible with each other as a set. For example, it will be unrealistic to conduct a project for making a luxury segment car and expect it to have a low cost of production. All criteria can be proven within the project life, or by proxy measures that provide reasonable indicators to whether acceptance criteria will be achieved post-project. We will continue our discussion on acceptance criteria in the next screen.

6.14 Acceptance Criteria (contd.)

The project’s acceptance criteria form a prioritised list of measurable definitions of the attributes that must apply to the set of products and is to be acceptable by key stakeholders. Acceptance criteria should be prioritised as this helps if there has to be a trade-off between some criteria. One example of a prioritisation technique is MoSCoW, which means that each acceptance criterion is rated as either: Must have, Should have, Could have or Won’t have. The acceptance criteria should be agreed upon by the customer and supplier so as to avoid the conflicts and arguments later during the project. Once agreed upon, acceptance criteria are subject to change control and can only be changed with the approval of the Project Board. In the next screen we will discuss Project Product Description.

6.15 Project Product Description

It assists in selecting the project approach, which in turn helps define the solution or method to be used to produce the product. The Project Product Description includes the overall purpose of the product, its composition, i.e. (pronounced as that is) the set of products it needs to comprise, the customer’s quality expectations, acceptance criteria and development skills. It also includes quality method and responsibilities for the overall project and project level quality tolerances. We will continue our discussion on project product description in the following screen.

6.16 Project Product Description (contd.)

The Project Product Description is created in the “Starting up a Project” process as part of the initial scoping activity and may be refined during the “Initiating a Project” process while creating the Project Plan. It is used by the “Closing a Project” process as part of the verification that the project has delivered the product expected of it and that the acceptance criteria have been met. Project Product Description is a special form of product description. The components of Project Brief should be checked at stage boundaries and should undergo formal change control. We will look at the quality management strategy in the following screen.

6.17 Quality Management Strategy

The Project Manager prepares the Quality Management Strategy during “Initiating a Project” process. The Quality Management Strategy should be approved by the Project Board. This strategy may require to be changed during the project’s life. Let us discuss an example: For a particular project for an aircraft manufacturing giant, during the Initiation Stage, the Project Manager had planned to procure the in-flight seats from British Seating Inc., an ISO 9000:2008 certified supplier, on the expectation that the supplier will provide the in-flight seats that adhered to the current industry standards for the airlines sector. However, at the end of the second stage, it was found that British Seats Inc. was facing some labour issues and hence would not able to provide the in-flight seats. The Project Manager was compelled to source the seats from Deutsche Seats, a supplier who was not ISO 9000:2008 certified. Hence, the Project Manager could not have taken for granted the same type of quality standard that was expected from previous supplier. So, for checking the in-flight seats, more quality tools were added and modified to ensure that a further rigorous testing was done. To modify the quality tools being used in the project, the Project Manager updated the Quality Management Strategy and also ensured on-boarding of Deutsche Seats during the stage boundary before the third stage. The above example demonstrated an instance where it was established that it may be required to change/update the Quality Management Strategy during the lifetime of a project. The Quality Management Strategy describes how the quality management systems of the participating organisations will be applied to the project and confirms any quality standards, procedure, techniques and tools that will be used. It also describes how tailoring to the standards has been done. It should outline the arrangements for Quality Assurance, including independent audits where these are required by the policies of the participating organisations. Key responsibilities for quality should be defined, both within and outside the project organisation, including a summary of the approach to Project Assurance. Let us look at Product Descriptions in the following screen.

6.18 Product Descriptions

A final product of the project may consist of various components or specialist products. For example, in a project to make a new water bottle, the bottle is the project’s product or final product. The bottle will consist of multiple specialist products, like the container, the cap and the label with graphics. The container, the cap and the label will have a Product Description. A Product Description should include the purpose of the product and its quality criteria. The purpose should describe the need of the product, who needs the product and functionality of the product. Quality criteria are the quality specifications that the product must meet and the quality measurements that will be applied by those inspecting the finished product. Another important section of Product Description is the quality tolerances. The quality tolerances is the range in the quality criteria within which the product would be acceptable. For example: The temperature of the water inside the bottle should be maintained in the range of 10 to 20 degree Centigrade. The bottle should hold at least 1 litre of water. We will continue our discussion of the product descriptions in the following screen.

6.19 Product Descriptions (contd.)

Product Descriptions also include quality methods. The quality methods are used to specify the quality activities to be implemented during the development of a product and for review and approval on completion. In the example of water bottle in the previous screen, it is known that the quality methods for the cap of the bottle and water would be different. Two other sections of a product description are quality skills required and quality responsibilities. While quality skills required, are an indication of the specialised skills required, to undertake the quality methods, quality responsibilities for a particular product should also be identified to avoid any uncertainty in this respect. Product Descriptions are not optional as they govern the development of the products and their subsequent review and approval. In the next screen we will understand the concept of Quality Method.

6.20 Quality Method

Quality method is the quality activities that need to be performed during development, review and approval of the product. There are two types of quality methods: first is “In-Process methods” and the second is “Appraisal methods”. If “In-Process” method is followed, the quality is ensured and built into the products as they are developed. For example, checking the quality of intermediate components before using them for developing the final product and testing the quality of the raw material before using it for the production, all these qualify as “In-Process” method as quality is ensured as the products are developed. Example of In Process method: As part of a project, a major construction company decides to use only ISI-certified switches and cables, for use in a residential complex, thereby ensuring that quality is ‘built into’ the product (residential flat). Appraisal methods are applied to the finished products. There are two ways of assessing finished products, we will look at them in the following screen.

6.21 Appraisal Method

In Appraisal method, finished product checked against set criteria for completeness of the product. The two ways of checking the completed products are Testing and Quality Inspection. Testing is applicable when the quality criteria are objective and quantifiable. Example of Testing: Amazon has commissioned a project for building its website for UK geography. Testing will be done on section of the website as well as the website as a whole before it goes live on the Internet. Quality Inspection is applicable when the quality criteria are subjective in nature and is a structured assessment of the product by two or more people. Example of Quality Inspection: As part of the beautification project of a lake undertaken by the local council, a survey will be done of the local residents during planning and after the new facilities is ready. This will be followed by an evaluation and quality inspection by a landscaping artist. Let us discuss Quality Responsibilities in the following screen.

6.22 Quality Responsibilities

PRINCE2 specifies the roles and responsibilities for project management activities clearly. The methodology also describes the quality responsibilities in detail. They are Producer(s) (Read as: producer or producers), Reviewer(s) (Read as: reviewer or reviewers) and Approver(s) (Read as: approver or approvers). Producer(s) are a group or a person who develops the product. Reviewer(s) are independent of producer and are a group or person who evaluates whether product meets its requirements as defined in its Product Descriptions. Approver(s) are a group or a person who approves a product as being complete and fit for the purpose. As part of tailoring a project, reviewers and approvers can be the same person/ group (Read as: person or group). Let us look at an example to illustrate this concept in the following screen.

6.23 Example of Quality Responsibilities

In the project to implement several modules of ERP systems at Bombardier Capital, iWay Software implemented the Financial and Controlling (FICO) modules of SAP ERP Software (producer). PricewaterhouseCoopers were the reviewers for the project while the CIO and Director of ERP were the Approvers for the module (product). A note should be made of all the quality management activities and their results. This is captured in Quality Register, which we will discuss in the next screen.

6.24 Quality Register

The quality register maintains a record of the actions planned and implemented for quality management. It is updated to keep actual results from the quality activities so that it can be used as audit and assurance information. The Quality Register is created during “Initiating a Project” process and it should be maintained with the set baseline plan throughout the project. The Quality Register is created and updated by Project Support and approved by the Project Manager. Let us look at an example of Quality Register in the next screen.

6.25 Example of Quality Register

The table on the screen is an example of a Quality Register. As is evident from the columns on the table, this management product contains a detailed information of the quality activities along with the dates. For example, the performance test for the Genset has failed and so the actual approval date is NA (read as N-A) in this case as this product will have to be tested again. Quality register should be maintained throughout the project. The information on the planned activities is kept in the register and updated as and when the activities are carried out. The activities are planned as a part of quality planning and the activities are performed as a part of quality control. Let us now discuss the second part of Quality Audit Trail, i.e. Quality Control, in the following screen.

6.26 Quality Control

Quality control focuses on the operational techniques and activities used by those involved in the project to satisfy the quality criteria. It helps in identifying the ways of eliminating causes of unsatisfactory performance. In other words, it helps in identifying the solutions for process improvements. It may introduce a change in the existing process to handle and avoid failures. This is done by improving the processes as a result of lessons learnt. It focuses on operational techniques and activities. The quality control activities are undertaken at the project level. Let us move on to the next screen to understand what is included in quality control.

6.27 Quality Control (contd.)

When planning is complete and work gets under way, quality control involves executing and tracking the quality methods defined. Quality control is achieved by implementing, monitoring and recording the quality methods and responsibilities defined in the Quality Management Strategy and Product Descriptions. Quality control is about maintaining Quality and approval records. It is also about gaining acceptance from the customer. Hence, it includes quality methods, quality records, approval records and acceptance records. In the following screen we will find out why these records are required.

6.28 Quality Review Techniques

The objectives of quality review technique are to assess the conformity of a product against set criteria. This takes the form of a document or similar item. Other objectives of this technique are to involve stakeholders for wider acceptance of the product and provide confirmation that the product is ready for approval. For example, presentation or test results are assessed against set criteria and key interested parties are involved while checking the product’s quality and promoting wider acceptance of the product. This technique also helps baseline the product for change control purposes process. The PRINCE2 quality review technique can provide benefits such as effective stakeholder engagement and team building. The quality review technique steps are review preparation, review meeting and review follow-up. During review preparation, the administrative arrangements for the review are made. The readiness of the product and the availability of the reviewers are checked. During review meeting the product is reviewed as per the agenda and the records are maintained. During review follow-up, the quality review outcome is communicated to the respective stakeholders and the quality records are stored appropriately. The roles involved in the review team are discussed in the next screen.

6.29 Roles in Review Team

A review team consists of Chair, Presenter, Reviewer and Administrator. Let us understand these roles individually. Chair: This role is responsible for the overall conduct of the review. Presenter: This role represents the producers of the product and introduces the product for review. The presenter also coordinates and tracks the work after the review, i.e. (pronounced as that is) applying the changes to the product agreed upon by the team. Reviewer: This role reviews the product, raises questions and confirms corrections and/or improvements. Administrator: This role provides administrative support for the chair and records the reviews, results and actions. Apart from the four quality review roles, there are two responsibilities for the product and they are producer and approvers. The producer is a person or a group of persons responsible for developing the product and the approvers are the persons or a group such as a Project Board who has been authorised to approve the product as being complete and fit for purpose. Let us understand review preparation in the next screen.

6.30 Review Preparation

PRINCE2 defines the tasks for various roles that are needed to perform during review preparation. As seen in the table on the screen, the chair/administrator makes administrative arrangements for the review meeting. The chair checks if the product is ready for review and ensures the availability of the reviewers. The presenter distributes copies of the product and its product description to reviewers before the review meeting. The reviewer reviews the product as per the product description. The reviewer(s) may add and submit some questions to the chair and the presenter then clarifies those questions with the producer of the product. The chair collates the questions and sends to presenter before the review. In the following screen, let us learn about setting agenda for Review Meeting.

6.31 Agenda of Review Meeting

When organising a meeting at the work place the agenda should be sent in advance along with the relevant documents so that the attendees are clear about the purpose of the meeting. Usually, such well-organised meetings are fruitful and utilise the time effectively. PRINCE2 suggests following agenda for the quality review meeting. A personal Introduction is given by the chair. The presenter introduces the product and also summarises the product in brief such as the product’s purpose: Who needs it, why they need it and what it will do. The chair asks major questions. Each reviewer may raise questions that are obvious with the product. The chair invites each reviewer to ask any major or global questions with the product. Global questions are ones that appear repeatedly throughout the product. The review team agrees on any action on each question as it is raised. Administrator records the questions and actions decided/ recommended. During product ‘talk-through’, the presenter takes the reviewers through the product in detail and also addresses the question list. The presenter leads the review team through the product section by section or page by page, as appropriate by reviewing the consolidated question list and inviting clarification where required. The review team agrees on actions taken for each question as it is raised. The administrator records the action and responsibilities. We will continue our discussion on the agenda of a review meeting in the next screen.

6.32 Agenda of Review Meeting (contd.)

The other agenda of a review meeting are as follows: The administrator reads back actions and confirms the actions and responsibilities. The chair determines the review results and leads the reviewers to a collective decision. The product is marked as complete, conditionally complete, i.e. the product is fit for purpose subject to the actions or incomplete, i.e., the product requires another quality review cycle. The chair closes the review and informs interested parties of the result. In the following screen, let us learn about follow-up actions of Review.

6.33 Review Follow-up

The table on the screen lists the follow-up actions of Review. After the review, the presenter should coordinate the follow-up actions. The reviewer signs-off individual actions. The chair Signs-off product once the actions are complete. The administrator communicates the review outcome to relevant managers or support personnel. The administrator saves the review and quality records and the presenter requests approval for the product. The reviewers and approvers of the product may be different. Let us recall the quality review technique in the next screen.

6.34 Revisiting the Quality Review Technique

Quality review technique involves: Review preparation: This includes administrative arrangements, checking the readiness of the product, confirming availability of reviewers and producing a list of questions. Review meeting agenda: This includes personal and product introduction, major questions, product walk-through, recording actions to be taken and by whom, recording the review results, closing the review and updating the relevant parties. Review follow-up: This includes coordinating actions, signing-off individual actions, signing-off the product as complete, communicating the quality review to managers, maintaining records and requesting approval of the product. In the following slide we will discuss the benefits of quality review technique.

6.35 Benefits of Quality Review Technique

The quality review technique can yield substantial benefits, which are as follows: Stakeholder engagement—structured quality inspections are among the most effective ways of encouraging project buy-in among stakeholders. Leadership—quality inspection techniques often provide excellent tips and guidance on effective behaviour and decision making in meetings; Team building—formal and informal quality inspections are the opportunities to focus on while building an effective project team. Developing individuals—exchange of knowledge occurs from each other’s perspectives in the quality review meeting. Quality documentation—proper quality records improve communication among stakeholders and effective analysis of quality metrics. Quality culture— the quality review technique helps in building a quality culture throughout the organisation. Let us recall the different roles in quality review in the next screen.

6.36 Revisiting the Quality Review Roles

PRINCE2 suggests that chair should focus on the product and help the presenter maintain the pace of the review. The chair should ensure that each reviewer gets the opportunity to speak and also ensure that the reviewers contribute effectively. The chair should manage time so that enough time is given to each question, not too much time is spent on a question and gets a decision on each point. The reviewer should review the product not the person. The reviewer should introduce only major issues. The presenter should raise an issue if the follow-up action is not feasible in allowed tolerances. In the following screen we will understand the concept of quality records.

6.37 Quality Records

The Quality records are maintained in the Quality Register. It also includes references to the quality inspection documentation. For example: test plan, defect statistics, metrics etc. It supports PRINCE2 principle of ‘Learn from experience’. It gives assurance that planned quality activities have been carried out, product has met its quality criteria defined in the product description and audits have been conducted as per plan and that corrective actions have been taken. In the following screen we will look at approval and acceptance records.

6.38 Approval and Acceptance Records

PRINCE2 does not specify any format for approval records. It may be in the form of minutes of meetings, an email, a letter, a certificate stating that the product has been approved. Acceptance records are for the final approval of the project’s specialist product. It may be required from one or more relevant users/customers/stakeholders. If there is a variation in the product from the actual requirements then “Concessions” may be granted by Project Board. Acceptance records are required to manage faults as it includes the follow-up actions or remedies. Let us look at the different roles and responsibilities in the next screen.

6.39 Roles and Responsibilities in Quality Theme

The table on the screen illustrates the responsibilities of Corporate/programme management in the quality theme. A corporate/programme management provides details of quality management system used at the organisation level and provides Quality Assurance. The acceptance criteria for the project’s product are a vital point to be considered during quality planning. The Executive approves the Project Product Description and the Quality Management Strategy. The Executive also confirms acceptance of the project product. Senior User(s) provide the customer’s quality expectations and acceptance criteria. They are also responsible for approving the project product description and the quality management strategy. Senior User(s) provide resources to undertake user quality activities and product approval and provide acceptance of the project’s product. Senior Supplier is responsible for the approval of the Project Product Description (if appropriate), the Quality Management Strategy and the quality methods, techniques and tools adopted in product development. Senior Supplier also provides resources to undertake supplier quality activities and approve product descriptions for key specialist products. Project Manager documents customer’s quality expectations and acceptance criteria. Project Manager also prepares the Project Product Description (with users), the Quality Management Strategy and prepares and maintains the Product Descriptions. Another responsibility of the Project Manager is to ensure that team managers implement the quality control measures agreed in Product Descriptions and Work Packages. Team Manager produces products consistent with Product Descriptions, manages quality controls for the product concerned, assembles quality records and advises the Project Manager of product quality status. Project Assurance advice the Project Manager on the quality management strategy, assist the Project Board and Project Manager by reviewing the Product Descriptions. The other responsibilities it has include advising the Project Manager on suitable quality reviewers/approvers and assuring Project Board members on the implementation of the Quality Management Strategy. Project Support provide administrative support for quality controls, maintain the quality register and quality records and assist team managers and members with the application of the project’s quality processes. Let us move on to the quiz questions to check your understanding of the concepts covered in this lesson.

6.41 Summary

Here is a quick recap of what we have learnt in this lesson: The purpose of Quality is to define and implement the means by which the project will create and verify products that are fit for purpose. The aim of quality planning is to ensure that there is an agreement with the Project Board on the overall quality expectations and the products required with their quality criteria. The customer’s quality expectations are a statement about the quality expected from the project product.

6.42 Thank you

In the next lesson, we will discuss the next theme Plans.

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