Process Group View Tutorial

Welcome to the thirteenth lesson ‘Process Group View’ of the CAPM Tutorial, which is a part of the CAPM Certification Course offered by Simplilearn. In this lesson, we will focus on process group view.

Let us begin with the objectives of this lesson.

Objectives

After completing this lesson on Process Group View, you will be able to:

  • Describe the project management process

  • Explain the process group interactions

  • Identify how each process in project management functions

  • Describe the major data flows between project management processes

In the next section, we will discuss the project management process.

Project Management Process

A project manager is supposed to fulfill a project’s requirements, that is, to deliver a unique output in a timely manner. It starts in the form of an idea that is approved by a project initiator or sponsor.

The project manager and the project team then elaborate their understanding of the requirements and produce the final deliverable, which can be a product, a service, or a result.

Throughout the project, the project management team needs to ensure that the stakeholders are engaged in the project and their expectations are being managed. The project management team also needs to ensure that there is good communication between the project team and the stakeholders.

In addition, the team should make sure that the constraints of scope, cost, time, quality, and others are balanced. In addition to producing deliverables, a project generates data. Such historical data, archives, or records are important for planning future projects. There are five major process groups in project management.

In the next section, we will discuss how these process groups are related to each other.

Process Group Interactions

The five process groups in project management are:

  • Initiating

  • Planning

  • Executing

  • Monitoring and controlling

  • Closing

The image shows how these process groups interact with each other.

The initiating processes occur only once during a project or a phase within a project, in the beginning, whereas, the closing processes occur only once, towards the end. However, planning, executing, and monitoring and controlling processes are repeated several times during a project.

The planning processes take information from the initiating processes and help to prepare an initial baseline version of the plan.

As the team starts execution, they understand the ground realities better. The deliverables produced and the data of the progress are fed into the monitoring and controlling process group.

In the monitoring and controlling process group, the information generated during execution is processed and utilized in three different ways:

  • Firstly, it can be used for revising the plan, which is termed as re-planning

  • Secondly, it can be fed back into execution as defects or corrective and preventive actions or approved changes

  • Thirdly, the information can result in the cancellation of the project or the successful completion of the project upon validation of the deliverables produced.

In the next section, we will discuss the initiating processes.

Initiating Processes

While discussing processes, consider it from the perspective of project manager or as part of the project management team. This implies that you are essentially functioning in the integration management knowledge area.

The initiating process includes two steps, which include:

Getting the project charter approved

A project manager is concerned about getting the charter for the project approved. Project charter sets the beginning of the project where the management has decided in its favor and is ready to commit resources for it.

Identifying stakeholders

The other process in the initiating process group is identifying stakeholders. The project manager and the project team should know the stakeholders and their requirements, which is the starting point for planning.  

You may get concept based questions in the CAPM exam. So study the initiating process to answer such questions easily. In the next section, we will discuss the planning processes.

Planning Processes

Planning accounts for most of the processes in the project management framework. As many as twenty-four out of the forty-seven project management processes belong to the planning process group.

The basic objective of the planning processes is to produce the project management plan collectively. The developed project management plan under integration management assimilates the output of all the planning processes under various knowledge areas.

The project management plan is the collection of all subsidiary plans that address different aspects of the project. The project management team integrates all these plans and ensures that they are in harmony with one another. The team also prepares a blueprint of how the project needs to be executed, controlled, and closed.

The planning process starts with scope planning, which is to understand exactly what you are trying to achieve. This is translated into a project scope statement, which can be decomposed into a Work Breakdown Structure or WBS, which forms the basis of other planning processes.

Any change to the scope invariably has a bearing on other parameters that can affect the project. Following the same logic, it is easier to understand how the planning processes in other knowledge areas such as quality, cost, and time can influence the time that will be taken, the cost that will be incurred, and the way quality will be managed.

To satisfy the scope, cost, time, and quality equilibrium, the project team needs to manage communications, risk, stakeholders, procurements, and human resources. This is where the planning processes under these knowledge areas come in.

All these planning processes interact with each other. Planning is an iterative activity that gets elaborated, refined, and adjusted as more and more information about the project is discovered.

In the next section, we will discuss the executing processes.

Executing Processes

Planning without execution is futile, but execution without planning is fatal. However, in execution processes, the project team spends a lot of time putting the plan into action. When you perform the executing processes, you often blend the execution and controlling processes.

Execution is all about performing the plan that is producing the deliverables and providing information on the progress.

Processing of this information and the validation of the deliverables is a control function. The executing process is direct and managed project work, where the project manager essentially puts certain mechanisms in place to ensure that the work is being carried out.

The project manager primarily focuses on ensuring that the procurements are conducted. These procurements are deliverables or services that the project needs to buy from external sources. The project manager also needs to ensure smooth flow of communication within the project team and with the external stakeholders.

The manager should make sure that stakeholders are engaged in the project, and that the processes for managing quality are being followed correctly.

It is important for the project manager is to make sure that:

  • the right team is being used

  • they have the knowledge and competencies to do the job

  • they work together as a team.

The project manager should also manage the team to make sure they are positioned for success.

In the next section, we will discuss the monitoring and controlling processes.

Monitoring and Controlling Processes

Monitoring is observing and getting data about how things are going within the project, whereas, controlling is taking actions to bring things back on track. Monitoring and controlling apply to different aspects of project management.

The image shows the various areas of project management where monitoring and control applies.

However, the knowledge area that has a corresponding control process is human resources, because human resources should be “managed”, not “controlled”. An important aspect of controlling is having an elaborate mechanism to handle changes.

In the next section, we will discuss the closing processes.

Closing Processes

Closing processes bring a project or a phase of the project to an orderly conclusion. Only two knowledge areas include a closing process. These are:

  • integration management

  • procurement management

Closing a project or a phase falls under integration management and applies to the overall project. Before the project is formally closed, all the procurements or contracts that are entered into for the project must be formally closed as well.

Study the closing processes in detail to answer concept based questions in the CAPM exam. In the next section, we will discuss important data flows in project management.

Important Data Flows in Project Management

The image given below is a valuable source of information that helps to understand how data flows between the processes of project management.

The major repository of data and information in a project includes the project documents, which is at the center of the image.

Information can originate from four external sources. These sources are the organization or enterprise, the customer, the project sponsor or initiator, and the sellers or suppliers to the project. Observe how the five process groups interact with the different sources of information and then exchange information internally.

Please revise the data flow diagram before the CAPM exam as you may get questions based on this concept.

Summary

Here is a quick recap of what was covered in this lesson:

  • The project management process starts with an idea being approved by the project initiator or sponsor. The project manager and the project team then understand the requirements and produce the final deliverable.

  • The five process groups in project management are initiating, planning, executing, controlling, and closing processes.

  • The objective of the planning processes is to produce the project management plan collectively.

  • Execution deals with performing the plan to produce the deliverables.

  • Information originates from four external sources. These are the organization or enterprise, the customer, the project sponsor or initiator, and the sellers or suppliers.

Conclusion

This concludes the CAPM Tutorial. You may now the clear idea of all about Certified Associate in Project Management and its processes. For further knowledge, you can enroll into the CAPM Certification Course.

  • Disclaimer
  • PMP, PMI, PMBOK, CAPM, PgMP, PfMP, ACP, PBA, RMP, SP, and OPM3 are registered marks of the Project Management Institute, Inc.

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