Zero Defects, a term coined by Mr. Philip Crosby in his book “Absolutes of Quality Management,” has emerged as a popular and highly-regarded concept in quality management – so much so that Six Sigma is adopting it as one of its major theories. Unfortunately, the idea has also faced a fair degree of criticism, with some arguing that a state of zero defects cannot exist. Others have worked hard to prove the naysayers wrong, pointing out that “zero defects” in quality management doesn’t mean perfection but rather relates to a state where waste is eliminated, defects are reduced, and you are maintaining the highest quality standards in projects.

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What Do We Mean by Zero Defects?

Zero Defects is a philosophy aimed at achieving the ideal of no quality defects within an organization.

From a literal standpoint, it’s pretty obvious that attaining zero defects is technically not possible in any sizable or complex manufacturing project. According to the Six Sigma standard, the definition of zero defects is defined as 3.4 defects per million opportunities (DPMO), allowing for a 1.5-sigma process shift. The zero defects concept should pragmatically be viewed as a quest for perfection in order to improve quality in the development or manufacturing process. True perfection might not be achievable but at least the quest will push quality and improvements to a point that is acceptable under even the most stringent metrics.

Zero Defects: The Theory and Implementation

Zero defects theory ensures that there is no waste existing in a project. Waste refers to all unproductive processes, tools, employees and so on.  Anything that is unproductive and does not add value to a project should be eliminated, called the process of elimination of waste. Eliminating waste creates a process of improvement and correspondingly lowers costs. Common with the zero defects theory is the concept of “doing it right the first time” to avoid costly and time-consuming fixes later in the project management process. 

Here is a collection of strategies you can use to implement a zero defects approach:

  • Effectively manage process changes: Once you decide that your organization should embrace zero defects, understand that it will probably mean a profound change to the traditionally favored way people do things. Manage a zero defects approach by adhering to the four key principles of change management. They are:
  1. Understand Change
  2. Plan Change
  3. Implement Change
  4. Communicate Change
  • Take into consideration your customers’ expectations of quality: While it’s essential to create systems that support zero defects where appropriate, don't over-compensate if it’s not important to the end-user.
  • Build quality into performance expectations: Give your staff the incentive to think of ways to achieve zero defects, by rewarding them when they're successful.
  • Learn (and embrace) poka-yoke: Invented over half a century ago by a Shigeo Shingo, a Japanese industrial engineer, "poka-yoke" (pronounced “POH-kay YOH-kay”) translates to "prevent inadvertent mistakes." Poke-yoke focuses on creating systems that make mistakes almost impossible or, if they're unavoidable, at least easier to find and correct.
  • Make continuous improvement and efficiency a high priority: If you want zero defects, you need to take a proactive approach. This approach means that every member of all your teams are always testing how robust their favored processes are and continually exploring ways to improve them and make them more efficient. Encourage your people to do this by introducing the zero defects philosophy into your organization’s corporate culture. This introduction ensures that it the philosophy becomes an accepted, default standard that staff will proactively work toward.
  • Measure your quality efforts: It's vital that you express your team’s progress by means of the bottom line. Generate baseline measurements so you can get a good idea about the cost of defects in your company and can subsequently quantify the benefits you're gaining by addressing them.
  • Monitor your team’s progress: Build mechanisms into your processes, methods, and systems that offer you continuous feedback. So, when flaws arise, you can act quickly.

The Principles of Zero Defects

The zero defects theory is based on four elements for implementation in real projects.

  1. Quality is a state of assurance to requirements. Therefore, zero defects in a project mean fulfilling requirements at that point in time.
  2. Right the first time. Quality should be integrated into the process from the beginning, rather than solving problems at a later stage.
  3. Quality is measured in financial terms. One needs to judge waste, production, and revenue in terms of budgetary impact.
  4. Performance should be judged by the accepted standards, as close to perfection as possible.

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Where Is Zero Defects Used?

Although zero defects is geared towards manufacturing, there is no reason why its underlying principles can’t be applied to just about any aspect of the business world, whether you’re manufacturing laptop computers or developing a new mobile app.

Zero defects is a philosophy, not just a way of fabricating items.

Zero Defect Manufacturing Implementation

Fortunately, today’s innovations like Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning can help organizations improve their products’ quality while reducing (if not eliminating) defects. Implementation is divided into these two categories:

  • Detection: The responsible parties test and review for defects, and if possible, repair the flaws. Put in simpler terms, look for what’s wrong and fix it.
  • Prevention: Investigate possible process variations, including how to improve the processes and resolve any unintended deviations. In other words, study how things are done, how they could go wrong, and try to head off problems by making changes.

Zero Defects: Pros and Cons

The clear advantage of achieving a zero-defect level is waste and cost reduction when building products to customer specifications. Zero defects mean higher customer satisfaction and improved customer loyalty, which invariably leads to better sales and profits. 

Nonetheless, a zero defects goal could lead to a scenario where a team is striving for a perfect process that cannot realistically be met. The time and resources dedicated to reaching zero defects may negatively impact performance and put a strain on employee morale and satisfaction. There can also be negative implications when you consider the full supply chain with other manufacturers that might have a different definition of zero defects.

Wrapping It Up

In the end, the quest for zero defects is an admirable objective in itself, and most companies find that the pros outweigh the cons. By striving for stringent but accepted standards of defects, companies can build better processes and create an environment of continuous service improvement. 

To know more about Six Sigma and Six Sigma certification and training, avail Simplilearn’s Certified Lean Six Sigma Green Belt Training.

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About the Author


Simplilearn is one of the world’s leading providers of online training for Digital Marketing, Cloud Computing, Project Management, Data Science, IT, Software Development, and many other emerging technologies.

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  • *According to Simplilearn survey conducted and subject to terms & conditions with Ernst & Young LLP (EY) as Process Advisors