Continual Service Improvement Principles: ITIL Intermediate CSI Tutorial

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2.1 Continual Service Improvement Principles

Welcome to the Learning Unit 2 of continual service improvement: Continual Service Improvement Principles This chapter deals with Details about the Principles of continual service improvement, covering the models used across the life cycle. Let us go ahead and learn more about Continual Service Improvement Principles.

2.2 Learning Unit 2: Continual Service Improvement Principles

Learning Unit topics: Before we start let me introduce you to some of our Learning Unit topics which will be covered in this lesson. Let us see what topics will be covered • You will go through a brief Review of Syllabus • You will be able to understand and describe How the success of CSI depends on understanding change in the organization and having clear accountability • You will know How service level management and knowledge management influence and support CSI • How the complete Deming Cycle works, and how it can be applied to a real world example • You will know How CSI can make effective use of the various aspects of service measurement • You will be able to understand and describe What situations require the use of frameworks and models, and examples of how each type can be used to achieve improvement Let us go ahead and learn more about Continual Service Improvement Principles.

2.3 CSI and Organizational Change

CSI and organizational change: Let us start to understand the concept of CSI and organizational change. Service improvement must focus on increasing the efficiency, maximizing the effectiveness and optimizing the cost of services and the underlying ITSM processes. The only way to do this is to ensure that improvement opportunities are identified throughout the entire service Lifecycle. Improving service management is to embark upon an organizational change program. Many organizational change programs fail to achieve the desired results. Successful ITSM requires understanding the way in which work is done and putting in place a program of change within the IT organization. This type of change is, by its very nature, prone to difficulties. It involves people and the way they work. People generally do not like to change; the benefits must be explained to everyone to gain their support and to ensure that they break out of old working practices. Those responsible for managing and steering organizational change should consciously address these softer issues. Using an approach such as John P. Kotter’s Eight Steps To Transforming Your Organization, coupled with formalized project management skills and practices, will significantly increase the chance of success. Kotter, Professor of Leadership at Harvard Business School, investigated more than 100 companies involved in, or having attempted a complex organizational change programs and identified eight main reasons why transformation efforts fail. Organizational change and these eight steps are discussed in detail later in the publication. Let us now move on to our next slide.

2.4 Ownership

Ownership in CSI: In our last slide we discussed about the concept of CSI and organizational change. This slide explains the concept of Ownership in CSI. The principle of ownership is fundamental to any improvement strategy. CSI is a best practice and one of the keys to successful implementation is to ensure that a specific manager, a CSI manager, is responsible for ensuring the best practice is adopted and sustained throughout the organization. The CSI manager becomes the CSI owner and chief advocate. The CSI owner is accountable for the success of Continual Service Improvement in the organization. This ownership responsibility extends beyond ensuring the CSI practices are embedded in the organization but also to ensuring there are adequate resources (including people and technology) to support and enable CSI. Also included are ongoing CSI activities such as monitoring, analyzing, evaluating trends and reporting as well as project-based service improvement activities – activities that are fundamental to the ITIL framework. Without clear and unambiguous accountability there will be no improvement. Let us now move on to our next slide.

2.5 CSI Register

CSI Register: In our last slide we discussed about the concept of Ownership in CSI. This slide explains the concept of CSI Register. CSI Register is used to record all the improvement opportunities Each opportunity should be categorized by: What kinds of Effort are required? (Into small, medium or large) What is the Duration or how quickly it can be achieved? What are the Benefits that will be achieved by its implementation? And lastly what are the Risks – since every opportunity has a risk The CSI register contains important information and is part of the service knowledge management system (SKMS) Let us now move on to our next slide.

2.7 Business Value of Service measurement

Business Value of Service measurement: This slide explains the concept of the Business Value of Service measurement. Basically, there are four reasons to monitor and measure: To validate – monitoring and measuring to validate previous decisions To direct – monitoring and measuring to set direction for activities in order to meet set targets. It is the most prevalent reason for monitoring and measuring To justify – monitoring and measuring to justify, with factual evidence or proof, that a course of action is required To intervene – monitoring and measuring to identify a point of intervention including subsequent changes and corrective actions. Let us now move on to our next slide.

2.8 Baselines

Baselines: This slide explains the concept of Baselines. An important beginning point for highlighting improvement is to establish baselines as markers or starting point for later comparison. Baselines are also used to establish an initial data point to determine if a service or process needs to be improved. As a result, it is important that baselines are documented, recognized and accepted throughout the organization. Baselines must be established at each level: strategic goals and objectives, tactical process maturity, and operational metrics and KPIs. Let us now move on to our next slide.

2.9 Baselines

Business Value of Service measurement: This slide explains the concept of the Business Value of Service measurement. Basically, there are four reasons to monitor and measure: To validate – monitoring and measuring to validate previous decisions To direct – monitoring and measuring to set direction for activities in order to meet set targets. It is the most prevalent reason for monitoring and measuring To justify – monitoring and measuring to justify, with factual evidence or proof, that a course of action is required To intervene – monitoring and measuring to identify a point of intervention including subsequent changes and corrective actions. Let us now move on to our next slide.

2.10 Knowledge management

Knowledge management: This slide explains the concept of Knowledge management. Knowledge Management plays a key role in CSI. Within each service Lifecycle phase, data should be captured to enable knowledge gain and an understanding of what is actually happening, thus enabling wisdom. This is often referred to as the DIKW (Data, Information, Knowledge and Wisdom) model. All too often an organization will capture the appropriate data but fail to process the data into information, synthesize the information into knowledge and then combine that knowledge with others to bring us wisdom. Wisdom will lead us to better decisions around improvement. This applies both when looking at the IT services themselves and when drilling down into each individual IT process. Knowledge Management is a mainstay of any improvement process. Let us now move on to our next slide.

2.11 Knowledge management

Knowledge management continued: In our last slide we discussed about the concept of Knowledge management. This slide explains the concept of Knowledge management in pictorial form. This is a pictorial representation of the DIKW (Data, Information, Knowledge and Wisdom) model. Which we have discussed in the last slide Let us now move on to our next slide.

2.12 Seven step improvement process

Seven step improvement process This slide explains the concept of seven step improvement process. Let us understand each step in detail. First step is to Identify the strategy for improvement: we will understand each step in questionnaire form So here the Question is: Where do you actually find the information? The answer is: you will Talk to the business, the customers and to IT management. Utilize the service catalogue as your starting point as well as the service level requirements of the different customers. This is the place where you start with the end in mind. In a perfect world, what should you measure? What is important to the business? Compile a list of what you should measure. This will often be driven by business requirements. Don’t try to cover every single eventuality or possible metric in the world. Make it simple. The number of what you should measure can grow quite rapidly. So too can the number of metrics and measurements. Let us understand second step: Define what you will measure: Every organization may find that they have limitations on what can actually be measured. If you cannot measure something then it should not appear in an SLA. So the Question is: What do you actually measure? And the Answer is: Start by listing the tools you currently have in place. These tools will include service management tools, monitoring tools, reporting tools, investigation tools and others. Compile a list of what each tool can currently measure without any configuration or customization. Stay away from customizing the tools as much as possible; configuring them is acceptable Now the concern is Where will you find the information? The answer is: The information is found within each process, procedure and work instruction. The tools are merely a way to collect and provide the data. Look at existing reports and databases. And Perform a gap analysis between the two lists. Report this information back to the business, the customers and IT management. It is possible that new tools are required or that configuration or customization is required to be able to measure what is required. Now the third step is: Gather the data: Gathering data requires having some form of monitoring in place. Monitoring could be executed using technology such as application, system and component monitoring tools or even be a manual process for certain tasks. So for third step Question is: What do you actually measure? And the Answer is: You gather whatever data has been identified as both needed and measurable. Please remember that not all data is gathered automatically. A lot of data is entered manually by people. It is important to ensure that policies are in place to drive the right behavior to ensure that this manual data entry follows the SMART (Specific-Measurable-Achievable-Relevant-Timely) principle. As much as possible, you need to standardize the data structure through policies and published standards. For example, how do you enter names in your tools – John Smith; Smith, John or J. Smith? These can be the same or different individuals. Having three different ways of entering the same name would slow down trend analysis and will severely impede any CSI initiative. Let us understand the fourth step: Process the data: so for data processing the Question is: What do you actually do here? And the Answer is: Convert the data in the required format and for the required audience. Follow the trail from metric to KPI to CSF, all the way back to the vision if necessary Once data is gathered, the next step is to process the data into the required format. Report-generating technologies are typically used at this stage as various amounts of data are condensed into information for use in the analysis activity. The data is also typically put into a format that provides an end-to-end perspective on the overall performance of a service. This activity begins the transformation of raw data into packaged information. Use the information to develop insight into the performance of the service and/or processes. Process the data into information (i.e. Create logical groupings) which provides a better means to analyze the data – the next action step in CSI. Processing the data is an important CSI activity that is often overlooked. While monitoring and collecting data on a single infrastructure component is important, it is also important to understand that component’s impact on the larger infrastructure and IT service. Knowing that a server was up 99.99% of the time is one thing, knowing that no one could access the server is another. An example of processing the data is taking the data from monitoring of the individual components such as the mainframe, applications, WAN, LAN, servers etc. And process this into a structure of an end-to-end service from the customer’s perspective.

2.13 Seven step improvement process

Now the fifth step is: Analyze the information and data: Your organization’s Service Desk has a trend of reduced call volumes consistently over the last four months. Even though this is a trend, you need to ask yourself the question: ‘Is this a good trend or a bad trend?’ You don’t know if the call reduction is because you have reduced the number of recurring errors in the infrastructure by good problem management activities or if the customers feel that the Service Desk doesn’t provide any value and they have started bypassing the Service Desk and going directly to second-level support groups. Data analysis transforms the information into knowledge of the events that are affecting the organization. More skill and experience is required to perform data analysis than data gathering and processing. Verification against goals and objectives is expected during this activity. This verification validates that objectives are being supported and value is being added. It is not sufficient to simply produce graphs of various types but to document the observations and conclusions. So now the Question is: What do you actually analyse? And the Answer is: Once the data is processed into information, you can then analyze the results, looking for answers to questions such as: • Are there any clear trends? • Are they positive or negative trends? • Are changes required? • Are we operating according to plan? • Are we meeting targets? • Are corrective actions required? • Are there underlying structural problems? • What is the cost of the service gap? Now the question is where to find the information? And the Answer is: Here you apply knowledge to your information. Without this, you have nothing more than sets of numbers showing metrics that are meaningless. It is not enough to simply look at this month’s figures and accept them without question, even if they meet SLA targets. You should analyze the figures to stay ahead of the game. Without analysis you merely have information. With analysis you have knowledge. If you find anomalies or poor results, then look for ways to improve. Let us understand the sixth step : Present and use the information: The sixth step is to take our knowledge and present it, that is, turn it into wisdom by utilizing reports, monitors, action plans, reviews, evaluations and opportunities. Consider the target audience; make sure that you identify exceptions to the service, benefits that have been revealed, or can be expected. Data gathering occurs at the operational level of an organization. Format this data into knowledge that all levels can appreciate and gain insight into their needs and expectations. So the question is what to measure? And the Answer is: There are no measurements in this step. And where do you actually find the information? Answer: From all previous steps. Historical/previous presentations This stage involves presenting the information in a format that is understandable, at the right level, provides value, notes exceptions to service, identifies the benefits that were revealed during the time period, and allows those receiving the information to make strategic, tactical and operational decisions. In other words, presenting the information in the manner that makes it the most useful for the target audience. Now the seventh step is Implement improvement: Use the knowledge gained to optimize, improve and correct services. Managers need to identify issues and present solutions. Explain how the corrective actions to be taken will improve the service. If organizations were implementing corrective action according to CSI, there would be no need for this publication. Corrective action is often done in reaction to a single event that caused a (severe) outage to part or all of the organization. Other times, the squeaky wheel will get noticed and specific corrective action will be implemented in no relation to the priorities of the organization, thus taking valuable resources away from real emergencies. This is common practice but obviously not best practice Let us now move on to our next slide.

2.14 Seven step integrated with PDCA

Seven step improvement process with PDCA cycle: In our last slide we discussed about the concept of seven step improvement process. This slide explains the seven steps integrated with PDCA cycle. Let us understand how the 7 step improvement process maps in PDCA or DEMINGS cycle. Demings cycles Plan stage relates with the 7 step improvement process step 1 Identify the strategy for improvement and 2 Define what you will measure. PDCA cycle’s Do activity refers to step 3- Gather the data and 4- Process the data of 7 step improvement process. PDCA cycle’s Check activity refers to step 5- Analyze the information and data and 6- Present and use the information of 7 step improvement process PDCA cycle’s Act activity refers to step 7 : Implement improvement. Of 7 step improvement process Let us now move on to our next slide.

2.15 Seven step integrated with PDCA

Seven step improvement process with PDCA cycle: In our last slide we discussed about the concept of seven steps integrated with PDCA cycle. This slide explains the same concept in pictorial format. Let us now move on to our next slide.

2.16 Governance

Governance: In our last slide we discussed about the concept of seven steps integrated with PDCA cycle. This slide explains the concept of Governance. Governance has been around the IT arena for decades. The mainframe had significant controls built around its day-to-day operations. With the advent of distributed processing in the early 90s, then n-tier processing, the internet, and increasing Virtualization, governance and controls simply went out of fashion; just when they were the most desperately needed. With the exposure of high-level corporate fraud in the early years of this century, IT was thrust, without warning, into a completely unfamiliar game with incredibly high stakes. Governance is back with a vengeance. IT is now forced to comply with sweeping legislation and an ever-increasing number of external regulations. External auditors are commonplace in large IT shops. IT can no longer mask their operations behind a veil of secrecy or a cloud of obfuscation but rather they must run an organization which prides itself on its transparency. Let us now move on to our next slide.

2.17 IT governance

IT Governance: In our last slide we discussed about the concept of Governance. This slide explains the concept of IT Governance. IT governance is part of an organization’s corporate governance. Governance is important for all organizations and will provide an environment within which CSI can operate and thrive IT must comply with new legislation and an ever-increasing number of external regulations due to potential business fraud. External auditors are now common place in large IT organizations Let us now move on to our next slide.

2.18 Types of Governance

1. Which option indicates the correct activity sequence in the overall approach to continual service improvement and illustrates a continual service improvement? A) Assess the current situation to obtain an accurate, unbiased snapshot of where the organization is right now. Understand and agree on the priorities for improvements based on a deeper development of the principles defined in the vision. Embrace the vision by understanding the high level business objective. Detail the CSI plan to achieve higher quality service provision by implementing or improving the ITSM process. B) Embrace the vision by understanding the high level business objective. Assess the current situation to obtain an accurate, unbiased snapshot of where the organization is right now. Understand and agree on the priorities for improvements based on a deeper development of the principles defined in the vision. Detail the CSI plan to achieve higher quality service provision by implementing or improving the ITSM process. C) Embrace the vision by understanding the high level business objective. Understand and agree on the priorities for improvements based on a deeper development of the principles defined in the vision. Detail the CSI plan to achieve higher quality service provision by implementing or improving the ITSM process. . Assess the current situation to obtain an accurate, unbiased snapshot of where the organization is right now. D) Assess the current situation to obtain an accurate, unbiased snapshot of where the organization is right now. Embrace the vision by understanding the high level business objective. Detail the CSI plan to achieve higher quality service provision by implementing or improving the ITSM process. Understand and agree on the priorities for improvements based on a deeper development of the principles defined in the vision. Answer: The correct option is B. The current sequence of the continual service improvement approach can be summarized as: 1) what is the vision? (Business Vision, mission goals and objectives) 2) Where are we now? (Baseline assessments) 3) Where do we want to be? (Measurable targets) 4) How do we get there? (Service and process improvement) 5) Did we get there? (Measurement and metrics). All other options are not having the correct order of the continual service improvement approach. 2. Which option best indicates the reason beyond the monitor and measuring within the service measurement concept of continual service improvement principles? A) Monitoring and measuring to validate previous decisions. Monitoring and measuring to set the direction for activities in order to meet set targets. Monitoring and measuring to justify, with factual evidence or proof, that a course of action is required. Monitoring and measuring to identify a point of intervention including subsequent changes and correction actions. B) Monitoring and measuring to validate previous decisions. Monitoring and measuring to set the direction for activities in order to meet set targets. Monitoring and measuring to justify, with factual evidence or proof, that a course of action is required. Monitoring and measuring to identify the external and internal drivers. C) Monitoring and measuring to validate previous decisions. Monitoring and measuring to set the direction for activities in order to meet set targets. Monitoring and measuring in identifying internal relationship in IT organizations, negotiating the terms and responsibilities of the internal relationships. Monitoring and measuring to identify a point of intervention including subsequent changes and correction actions. D) Monitoring and measuring to identify the external and internal drivers. Monitoring and measuring to set the direction for activities in order to meet set targets. Monitoring and measuring in identifying internal relationship in IT organizations, negotiating the terms and responsibilities of the internal relationships. Monitoring and measuring to identify a point of intervention including subsequent changes and correction actions. Answer: Option A is the best option. The four reasons to monitor and measure are: To validate, To direct, To justify and To intervene. Option B is incorrect as identifying the external drivers is not part of the four reasons to monitor and measure. The Option C describes about identifying the internal relationship which is incorrect whereas Option D inherits both wrong options of external drivers as well as identifying the internal relationship. 3. Identify the various INPUTS to continual service improvement from different lifecycle stages – Service strategy, Service design, Service transition and Service operation. A) Service Strategy: Vision and mission, service portfolio, Policies, Result of customer and user satisfaction survey. Service Design: Service Catalogue, Service Design package, Design for the seven step improvement process and procedure. Service Transition: Test reports, Change evaluation reports. Service Operations: Operational performance data and service records, proposed problem resolutions and proactive measures, Improvement opportunities logged in the CSI register. B) Service Strategy: Vision and mission, service portfolio, Policies, Patterns of Business activity. Service Design: Service Catalogue, Service Design package, Design for the seven step improvement process and procedure. Service Transition: Test reports, Change evaluation reports. Service Operations: RFC for implementing improvements, proposed problem resolutions and proactive measures, Improvement opportunities logged in the CSI register. C) Service Strategy: Vision and mission, service portfolio, Policies, Patterns of Business activity. Service Design: Service Catalogue, Service Design package, Design for the seven step improvement process and procedure. Service Transition: Test reports, Change evaluation reports. Service Operations: Operational performance data and service records, proposed problem resolutions and proactive measures, Improvement opportunities logged in the CSI register. D) Service Strategy: Vision and mission, service portfolio, Policies, Input to business cases and service portfolio. Service Design: Service Catalogue, Service Design package, Design for the seven step improvement process and procedure. Service Transition: Service reports, Change evaluation reports. Service Operations: Operational performance data and service records, proposed problem resolutions and proactive measures, Improvement opportunities logged in the CSI register. Answer: Option C is the best answer as it describes correctly the Inputs to continual service improvement from the other phases of the lifecycle such as Service strategy, Service design, Service transition and Service operations. Option A is incorrect as it mentions the “Result of customer and user satisfaction survey” as the input whereas the Option B is wrong because it mentions the RFCs for implementing improvements as the inputs for the service operations. The Option D is incorrect as it mentions ‘inputs to business cases and service portfolio’ as the input from service strategy, in fact is a CSI output to service strategy. 4. Identify the various OUTPUTS from continual service improvement to different lifecycle stages – Service strategy, Service design, Service transition and Service operation. A) Service Strategy: Results of customer and user satisfaction survey, Feedback on strategies and policies. Service Design: Data required for metrics, KPIs and CSFs, RFC for implementing improvements. Service Transition: Input to testing requirements, Service reports. Service Operations: Service reports and dashboards, RFC for implementing improvements, Operational performance data and service records. B) Service Strategy: Results of customer and user satisfaction survey, Feedback on strategies and policies. Service Design: Service Catalogue, Data required for metrics, KPIs and CSFs, RFC for implementing improvements. Service Transition: Input to testing requirements, Service reports. Service Operations: Service reports and dashboards, RFC for implementing improvements, Operational performance data and service records. C) Service Strategy: Results of customer and user satisfaction survey, Feedback on strategies and policies. Service Design: Data required for metrics, KPIs and CSFs, RFC for implementing improvements. Service Transition: Test reports, Change evaluation reports, Service reports. Service Operations: Service reports and dashboards, RFC for implementing improvements, Operational performance data and service records. D) Service Strategy: Results of customer and user satisfaction survey, Feedback on strategies and policies. Service Design: Data required for metrics, KPIs and CSFs, RFC for implementing improvements. Service Transition: Input to testing requirements, Service reports. Service Operations: Service reports and dashboards, RFC for implementing improvements. Answer: Option D is the best answer as it describes correctly the outputs from continual service improvement to the other phases of the lifecycle such as Service strategy, Service design, Service transition and Service operations. Option A is incorrect as it mentions the ‘operational performance data and service records’ as output within service operations. Option B is wrong as it mentions the service catalogue the output within Service Design. The Option D is incorrect because of service reports as output in Service Transition. 5. Select the best option describing the role of knowledge management in the CSI. A) Knowledge management plays no role in the CSI. B) Knowledge management plays a key role in CSI. Data is captured to enable knowledge gain an understanding of the current state. Wisdom is gained at each service lifecycle phase. C) Knowledge management plays a key role in CSI. Data is captured to enable knowledge gain an understanding of the current state. Wisdom is only gained at service operation phase only. D) Knowledge management plays a key role in CSI. Data is captured to enable knowledge gain an understanding of the current state. Wisdom is only gained at continual service improvement phase only. Answer: As per ITIL continual service improvement publication – ‘Knowledge management plays a key role in continual service improvement and Wisdom is gained at each service lifecycle phase’. That makes the option B as the most appropriate answer and option A, C and D as incorrect. 6. Identify the best option specifying the correct description of governance within CSI. A) Enterprise governance: Describes a framework that covers both the corporate governance and the business management aspects of the organization. Corporate governance: Promotes corporate fairness, transparency & accountability. IT governance: Ensure that the Organization’s IT sustains and extends the organization’s strategies and objectives. B) Governance has no role in continual service improvement. C) IT governance: Describes a framework that covers both the corporate governance and the business management aspects of the organization. Corporate governance: Promotes corporate fairness, transparency & accountability. Enterprise governance: Ensure that the Organization’s IT sustains and extends the organization’s strategies and objectives. D) IT Governance and Enterprise governance has no interrelationship. Answer Option A is the correct answer as it describes the correct definition of Enterprise, Corporate and IT governance. Option B is wrong as governance has key role in implementing the continual service improvement whereas C is incorrect description of the Enterprise and IT governance. And, IT governance and Enterprise governance are linked to each others that make the option D as incorrect. 7. CSI works in conjunction with various frameworks, quality standards, models and standards. Which of the following best describes such models? A) Six Sigma: an information systems audit framework, matured to become an overall IT management framework. Often used by IT and SOX auditors.PRINCE2 (Project IN Controlled Environments): Structured project management method. CMMI (Capability Maturity Model Integration): The de facto standard for measuring the maturity of any process. B) COBIT: an information systems audit framework, matured to become an overall IT management framework. Often used by IT and SOX auditors. PRINCE2 (Project IN Controlled Environments): Structured project management method. CMMI (Capability Maturity Model Integration): The de facto standard for measuring the maturity of any process. C) Six Sigma: an information systems audit framework, matured to become an overall IT management framework. Often used by IT and SOX auditors.PRINCE2 (Project IN Controlled Environments): Structured project management method. ISO/IEC 20000: The de facto standard for measuring the maturity of any process. D) COBIT: an information systems audit framework, matured to become an overall IT management framework. Often used by IT and SOX auditors.PRINCE2 (Project IN Controlled Environments): Structured project management method. ISO/IEC 20000: The de facto standard for measuring the maturity of any process. Answer: Option B is the correct option as it describes the COBIT, PRINCE2 and CMMI correctly. Option A has a wrong definition for the Six sigma. The Option C and D are having the wrong description for Six sigma and ISO/IEC 20000. 8. Which of the following option best describes the importance of the CSI register in the overall Continual Service improvement stage of the lifecycle? A) CSI register is kept to record all the improvement opportunities and that each one should be categorized into small, medium and large undertaking. CSI register should be considered as part of the service knowledge management system. The CSI register will introduce a structure and visibility to CSI ensuring that all initiatives are captured and recorded, and benefits realized. The CSI register provides a coordinated, consistent view of the potentially numerous improvement activities. B) CSI register is kept to record all the improvement opportunities and that each one should be categorized into small, medium and large undertaking. CSI register should be considered as part of the service knowledge management system. The CSI register will introduce a structure and visibility to CSI ensuring that all initiatives are captured and recorded, and benefits realized. Using the CSI register as the baseline to negotiates service level agreements within the business. C) CSI register is kept to record all the improvement opportunities and that each one should be categorized into small, medium and large undertaking. CSI register should be considered as part of the service knowledge management system. The CSI register will introduce a structure and visibility to CSI ensuring that all initiatives are captured and recorded, and benefits realized. CSI register is used to establish an initial data point to determine if a service or process needs to be improved. D) CSI register is kept to record all the improvement opportunities and that each one should be categorized into small, medium and large undertaking. CSI register should be considered as part of the service knowledge management system. Using the CSI register as the baseline to negotiates service level agreements within the business. CSI register is used to establish an initial data point to determine if a service or process needs to be improved. Answer: Option A is the most correct answer. Option B is not correct as it mentions that using the CSI register as the baseline to negotiate service level agreements within the business and Option C specifies CSI register is used to establish an initial data point to determine if a service or process needs to be improved which is also incorrect. The option D mentions both the wrong options of the option C and Option D making it wrong as well as.

2.19 Enterprise governance

1. Which option indicates the correct activity sequence in the overall approach to continual service improvement and illustrates a continual service improvement? A) Assess the current situation to obtain an accurate, unbiased snapshot of where the organization is right now. Understand and agree on the priorities for improvements based on a deeper development of the principles defined in the vision. Embrace the vision by understanding the high level business objective. Detail the CSI plan to achieve higher quality service provision by implementing or improving the ITSM process. B) Embrace the vision by understanding the high level business objective. Assess the current situation to obtain an accurate, unbiased snapshot of where the organization is right now. Understand and agree on the priorities for improvements based on a deeper development of the principles defined in the vision. Detail the CSI plan to achieve higher quality service provision by implementing or improving the ITSM process. C) Embrace the vision by understanding the high level business objective. Understand and agree on the priorities for improvements based on a deeper development of the principles defined in the vision. Detail the CSI plan to achieve higher quality service provision by implementing or improving the ITSM process. . Assess the current situation to obtain an accurate, unbiased snapshot of where the organization is right now. D) Assess the current situation to obtain an accurate, unbiased snapshot of where the organization is right now. Embrace the vision by understanding the high level business objective. Detail the CSI plan to achieve higher quality service provision by implementing or improving the ITSM process. Understand and agree on the priorities for improvements based on a deeper development of the principles defined in the vision. Answer: The correct option is B. The current sequence of the continual service improvement approach can be summarized as: 1) what is the vision? (Business Vision, mission goals and objectives) 2) Where are we now? (Baseline assessments) 3) Where do we want to be? (Measurable targets) 4) How do we get there? (Service and process improvement) 5) Did we get there? (Measurement and metrics). All other options are not having the correct order of the continual service improvement approach. 2. Which option best indicates the reason beyond the monitor and measuring within the service measurement concept of continual service improvement principles? A) Monitoring and measuring to validate previous decisions. Monitoring and measuring to set the direction for activities in order to meet set targets. Monitoring and measuring to justify, with factual evidence or proof, that a course of action is required. Monitoring and measuring to identify a point of intervention including subsequent changes and correction actions. B) Monitoring and measuring to validate previous decisions. Monitoring and measuring to set the direction for activities in order to meet set targets. Monitoring and measuring to justify, with factual evidence or proof, that a course of action is required. Monitoring and measuring to identify the external and internal drivers. C) Monitoring and measuring to validate previous decisions. Monitoring and measuring to set the direction for activities in order to meet set targets. Monitoring and measuring in identifying internal relationship in IT organizations, negotiating the terms and responsibilities of the internal relationships. Monitoring and measuring to identify a point of intervention including subsequent changes and correction actions. D) Monitoring and measuring to identify the external and internal drivers. Monitoring and measuring to set the direction for activities in order to meet set targets. Monitoring and measuring in identifying internal relationship in IT organizations, negotiating the terms and responsibilities of the internal relationships. Monitoring and measuring to identify a point of intervention including subsequent changes and correction actions. Answer: Option A is the best option. The four reasons to monitor and measure are: To validate, To direct, To justify and To intervene. Option B is incorrect as identifying the external drivers is not part of the four reasons to monitor and measure. The Option C describes about identifying the internal relationship which is incorrect whereas Option D inherits both wrong options of external drivers as well as identifying the internal relationship. 3. Identify the various INPUTS to continual service improvement from different lifecycle stages – Service strategy, Service design, Service transition and Service operation. A) Service Strategy: Vision and mission, service portfolio, Policies, Result of customer and user satisfaction survey. Service Design: Service Catalogue, Service Design package, Design for the seven step improvement process and procedure. Service Transition: Test reports, Change evaluation reports. Service Operations: Operational performance data and service records, proposed problem resolutions and proactive measures, Improvement opportunities logged in the CSI register. B) Service Strategy: Vision and mission, service portfolio, Policies, Patterns of Business activity. Service Design: Service Catalogue, Service Design package, Design for the seven step improvement process and procedure. Service Transition: Test reports, Change evaluation reports. Service Operations: RFC for implementing improvements, proposed problem resolutions and proactive measures, Improvement opportunities logged in the CSI register. C) Service Strategy: Vision and mission, service portfolio, Policies, Patterns of Business activity. Service Design: Service Catalogue, Service Design package, Design for the seven step improvement process and procedure. Service Transition: Test reports, Change evaluation reports. Service Operations: Operational performance data and service records, proposed problem resolutions and proactive measures, Improvement opportunities logged in the CSI register. D) Service Strategy: Vision and mission, service portfolio, Policies, Input to business cases and service portfolio. Service Design: Service Catalogue, Service Design package, Design for the seven step improvement process and procedure. Service Transition: Service reports, Change evaluation reports. Service Operations: Operational performance data and service records, proposed problem resolutions and proactive measures, Improvement opportunities logged in the CSI register. Answer: Option C is the best answer as it describes correctly the Inputs to continual service improvement from the other phases of the lifecycle such as Service strategy, Service design, Service transition and Service operations. Option A is incorrect as it mentions the “Result of customer and user satisfaction survey” as the input whereas the Option B is wrong because it mentions the RFCs for implementing improvements as the inputs for the service operations. The Option D is incorrect as it mentions ‘inputs to business cases and service portfolio’ as the input from service strategy, in fact is a CSI output to service strategy. 4. Identify the various OUTPUTS from continual service improvement to different lifecycle stages – Service strategy, Service design, Service transition and Service operation. A) Service Strategy: Results of customer and user satisfaction survey, Feedback on strategies and policies. Service Design: Data required for metrics, KPIs and CSFs, RFC for implementing improvements. Service Transition: Input to testing requirements, Service reports. Service Operations: Service reports and dashboards, RFC for implementing improvements, Operational performance data and service records. B) Service Strategy: Results of customer and user satisfaction survey, Feedback on strategies and policies. Service Design: Service Catalogue, Data required for metrics, KPIs and CSFs, RFC for implementing improvements. Service Transition: Input to testing requirements, Service reports. Service Operations: Service reports and dashboards, RFC for implementing improvements, Operational performance data and service records. C) Service Strategy: Results of customer and user satisfaction survey, Feedback on strategies and policies. Service Design: Data required for metrics, KPIs and CSFs, RFC for implementing improvements. Service Transition: Test reports, Change evaluation reports, Service reports. Service Operations: Service reports and dashboards, RFC for implementing improvements, Operational performance data and service records. D) Service Strategy: Results of customer and user satisfaction survey, Feedback on strategies and policies. Service Design: Data required for metrics, KPIs and CSFs, RFC for implementing improvements. Service Transition: Input to testing requirements, Service reports. Service Operations: Service reports and dashboards, RFC for implementing improvements. Answer: Option D is the best answer as it describes correctly the outputs from continual service improvement to the other phases of the lifecycle such as Service strategy, Service design, Service transition and Service operations. Option A is incorrect as it mentions the ‘operational performance data and service records’ as output within service operations. Option B is wrong as it mentions the service catalogue the output within Service Design. The Option D is incorrect because of service reports as output in Service Transition. 5. Select the best option describing the role of knowledge management in the CSI. A) Knowledge management plays no role in the CSI. B) Knowledge management plays a key role in CSI. Data is captured to enable knowledge gain an understanding of the current state. Wisdom is gained at each service lifecycle phase. C) Knowledge management plays a key role in CSI. Data is captured to enable knowledge gain an understanding of the current state. Wisdom is only gained at service operation phase only. D) Knowledge management plays a key role in CSI. Data is captured to enable knowledge gain an understanding of the current state. Wisdom is only gained at continual service improvement phase only. Answer: As per ITIL continual service improvement publication – ‘Knowledge management plays a key role in continual service improvement and Wisdom is gained at each service lifecycle phase’. That makes the option B as the most appropriate answer and option A, C and D as incorrect. 6. Identify the best option specifying the correct description of governance within CSI. A) Enterprise governance: Describes a framework that covers both the corporate governance and the business management aspects of the organization. Corporate governance: Promotes corporate fairness, transparency & accountability. IT governance: Ensure that the Organization’s IT sustains and extends the organization’s strategies and objectives. B) Governance has no role in continual service improvement. C) IT governance: Describes a framework that covers both the corporate governance and the business management aspects of the organization. Corporate governance: Promotes corporate fairness, transparency & accountability. Enterprise governance: Ensure that the Organization’s IT sustains and extends the organization’s strategies and objectives. D) IT Governance and Enterprise governance has no interrelationship. Answer Option A is the correct answer as it describes the correct definition of Enterprise, Corporate and IT governance. Option B is wrong as governance has key role in implementing the continual service improvement whereas C is incorrect description of the Enterprise and IT governance. And, IT governance and Enterprise governance are linked to each others that make the option D as incorrect. 7. CSI works in conjunction with various frameworks, quality standards, models and standards. Which of the following best describes such models? A) Six Sigma: an information systems audit framework, matured to become an overall IT management framework. Often used by IT and SOX auditors.PRINCE2 (Project IN Controlled Environments): Structured project management method. CMMI (Capability Maturity Model Integration): The de facto standard for measuring the maturity of any process. B) COBIT: an information systems audit framework, matured to become an overall IT management framework. Often used by IT and SOX auditors. PRINCE2 (Project IN Controlled Environments): Structured project management method. CMMI (Capability Maturity Model Integration): The de facto standard for measuring the maturity of any process. C) Six Sigma: an information systems audit framework, matured to become an overall IT management framework. Often used by IT and SOX auditors.PRINCE2 (Project IN Controlled Environments): Structured project management method. ISO/IEC 20000: The de facto standard for measuring the maturity of any process. D) COBIT: an information systems audit framework, matured to become an overall IT management framework. Often used by IT and SOX auditors.PRINCE2 (Project IN Controlled Environments): Structured project management method. ISO/IEC 20000: The de facto standard for measuring the maturity of any process. Answer: Option B is the correct option as it describes the COBIT, PRINCE2 and CMMI correctly. Option A has a wrong definition for the Six sigma. The Option C and D are having the wrong description for Six sigma and ISO/IEC 20000. 8. Which of the following option best describes the importance of the CSI register in the overall Continual Service improvement stage of the lifecycle? A) CSI register is kept to record all the improvement opportunities and that each one should be categorized into small, medium and large undertaking. CSI register should be considered as part of the service knowledge management system. The CSI register will introduce a structure and visibility to CSI ensuring that all initiatives are captured and recorded, and benefits realized. The CSI register provides a coordinated, consistent view of the potentially numerous improvement activities. B) CSI register is kept to record all the improvement opportunities and that each one should be categorized into small, medium and large undertaking. CSI register should be considered as part of the service knowledge management system. The CSI register will introduce a structure and visibility to CSI ensuring that all initiatives are captured and recorded, and benefits realized. Using the CSI register as the baseline to negotiates service level agreements within the business. C) CSI register is kept to record all the improvement opportunities and that each one should be categorized into small, medium and large undertaking. CSI register should be considered as part of the service knowledge management system. The CSI register will introduce a structure and visibility to CSI ensuring that all initiatives are captured and recorded, and benefits realized. CSI register is used to establish an initial data point to determine if a service or process needs to be improved. D) CSI register is kept to record all the improvement opportunities and that each one should be categorized into small, medium and large undertaking. CSI register should be considered as part of the service knowledge management system. Using the CSI register as the baseline to negotiates service level agreements within the business. CSI register is used to establish an initial data point to determine if a service or process needs to be improved. Answer: Option A is the most correct answer. Option B is not correct as it mentions that using the CSI register as the baseline to negotiate service level agreements within the business and Option C specifies CSI register is used to establish an initial data point to determine if a service or process needs to be improved which is also incorrect. The option D mentions both the wrong options of the option C and Option D making it wrong as well as.

2.20 Frameworks, Models, Standards, Quality System

1. Which option indicates the correct activity sequence in the overall approach to continual service improvement and illustrates a continual service improvement? A) Assess the current situation to obtain an accurate, unbiased snapshot of where the organization is right now. Understand and agree on the priorities for improvements based on a deeper development of the principles defined in the vision. Embrace the vision by understanding the high level business objective. Detail the CSI plan to achieve higher quality service provision by implementing or improving the ITSM process. B) Embrace the vision by understanding the high level business objective. Assess the current situation to obtain an accurate, unbiased snapshot of where the organization is right now. Understand and agree on the priorities for improvements based on a deeper development of the principles defined in the vision. Detail the CSI plan to achieve higher quality service provision by implementing or improving the ITSM process. C) Embrace the vision by understanding the high level business objective. Understand and agree on the priorities for improvements based on a deeper development of the principles defined in the vision. Detail the CSI plan to achieve higher quality service provision by implementing or improving the ITSM process. . Assess the current situation to obtain an accurate, unbiased snapshot of where the organization is right now. D) Assess the current situation to obtain an accurate, unbiased snapshot of where the organization is right now. Embrace the vision by understanding the high level business objective. Detail the CSI plan to achieve higher quality service provision by implementing or improving the ITSM process. Understand and agree on the priorities for improvements based on a deeper development of the principles defined in the vision. Answer: The correct option is B. The current sequence of the continual service improvement approach can be summarized as: 1) what is the vision? (Business Vision, mission goals and objectives) 2) Where are we now? (Baseline assessments) 3) Where do we want to be? (Measurable targets) 4) How do we get there? (Service and process improvement) 5) Did we get there? (Measurement and metrics). All other options are not having the correct order of the continual service improvement approach. 2. Which option best indicates the reason beyond the monitor and measuring within the service measurement concept of continual service improvement principles? A) Monitoring and measuring to validate previous decisions. Monitoring and measuring to set the direction for activities in order to meet set targets. Monitoring and measuring to justify, with factual evidence or proof, that a course of action is required. Monitoring and measuring to identify a point of intervention including subsequent changes and correction actions. B) Monitoring and measuring to validate previous decisions. Monitoring and measuring to set the direction for activities in order to meet set targets. Monitoring and measuring to justify, with factual evidence or proof, that a course of action is required. Monitoring and measuring to identify the external and internal drivers. C) Monitoring and measuring to validate previous decisions. Monitoring and measuring to set the direction for activities in order to meet set targets. Monitoring and measuring in identifying internal relationship in IT organizations, negotiating the terms and responsibilities of the internal relationships. Monitoring and measuring to identify a point of intervention including subsequent changes and correction actions. D) Monitoring and measuring to identify the external and internal drivers. Monitoring and measuring to set the direction for activities in order to meet set targets. Monitoring and measuring in identifying internal relationship in IT organizations, negotiating the terms and responsibilities of the internal relationships. Monitoring and measuring to identify a point of intervention including subsequent changes and correction actions. Answer: Option A is the best option. The four reasons to monitor and measure are: To validate, To direct, To justify and To intervene. Option B is incorrect as identifying the external drivers is not part of the four reasons to monitor and measure. The Option C describes about identifying the internal relationship which is incorrect whereas Option D inherits both wrong options of external drivers as well as identifying the internal relationship. 3. Identify the various INPUTS to continual service improvement from different lifecycle stages – Service strategy, Service design, Service transition and Service operation. A) Service Strategy: Vision and mission, service portfolio, Policies, Result of customer and user satisfaction survey. Service Design: Service Catalogue, Service Design package, Design for the seven step improvement process and procedure. Service Transition: Test reports, Change evaluation reports. Service Operations: Operational performance data and service records, proposed problem resolutions and proactive measures, Improvement opportunities logged in the CSI register. B) Service Strategy: Vision and mission, service portfolio, Policies, Patterns of Business activity. Service Design: Service Catalogue, Service Design package, Design for the seven step improvement process and procedure. Service Transition: Test reports, Change evaluation reports. Service Operations: RFC for implementing improvements, proposed problem resolutions and proactive measures, Improvement opportunities logged in the CSI register. C) Service Strategy: Vision and mission, service portfolio, Policies, Patterns of Business activity. Service Design: Service Catalogue, Service Design package, Design for the seven step improvement process and procedure. Service Transition: Test reports, Change evaluation reports. Service Operations: Operational performance data and service records, proposed problem resolutions and proactive measures, Improvement opportunities logged in the CSI register. D) Service Strategy: Vision and mission, service portfolio, Policies, Input to business cases and service portfolio. Service Design: Service Catalogue, Service Design package, Design for the seven step improvement process and procedure. Service Transition: Service reports, Change evaluation reports. Service Operations: Operational performance data and service records, proposed problem resolutions and proactive measures, Improvement opportunities logged in the CSI register. Answer: Option C is the best answer as it describes correctly the Inputs to continual service improvement from the other phases of the lifecycle such as Service strategy, Service design, Service transition and Service operations. Option A is incorrect as it mentions the “Result of customer and user satisfaction survey” as the input whereas the Option B is wrong because it mentions the RFCs for implementing improvements as the inputs for the service operations. The Option D is incorrect as it mentions ‘inputs to business cases and service portfolio’ as the input from service strategy, in fact is a CSI output to service strategy. 4. Identify the various OUTPUTS from continual service improvement to different lifecycle stages – Service strategy, Service design, Service transition and Service operation. A) Service Strategy: Results of customer and user satisfaction survey, Feedback on strategies and policies. Service Design: Data required for metrics, KPIs and CSFs, RFC for implementing improvements. Service Transition: Input to testing requirements, Service reports. Service Operations: Service reports and dashboards, RFC for implementing improvements, Operational performance data and service records. B) Service Strategy: Results of customer and user satisfaction survey, Feedback on strategies and policies. Service Design: Service Catalogue, Data required for metrics, KPIs and CSFs, RFC for implementing improvements. Service Transition: Input to testing requirements, Service reports. Service Operations: Service reports and dashboards, RFC for implementing improvements, Operational performance data and service records. C) Service Strategy: Results of customer and user satisfaction survey, Feedback on strategies and policies. Service Design: Data required for metrics, KPIs and CSFs, RFC for implementing improvements. Service Transition: Test reports, Change evaluation reports, Service reports. Service Operations: Service reports and dashboards, RFC for implementing improvements, Operational performance data and service records. D) Service Strategy: Results of customer and user satisfaction survey, Feedback on strategies and policies. Service Design: Data required for metrics, KPIs and CSFs, RFC for implementing improvements. Service Transition: Input to testing requirements, Service reports. Service Operations: Service reports and dashboards, RFC for implementing improvements. Answer: Option D is the best answer as it describes correctly the outputs from continual service improvement to the other phases of the lifecycle such as Service strategy, Service design, Service transition and Service operations. Option A is incorrect as it mentions the ‘operational performance data and service records’ as output within service operations. Option B is wrong as it mentions the service catalogue the output within Service Design. The Option D is incorrect because of service reports as output in Service Transition. 5. Select the best option describing the role of knowledge management in the CSI. A) Knowledge management plays no role in the CSI. B) Knowledge management plays a key role in CSI. Data is captured to enable knowledge gain an understanding of the current state. Wisdom is gained at each service lifecycle phase. C) Knowledge management plays a key role in CSI. Data is captured to enable knowledge gain an understanding of the current state. Wisdom is only gained at service operation phase only. D) Knowledge management plays a key role in CSI. Data is captured to enable knowledge gain an understanding of the current state. Wisdom is only gained at continual service improvement phase only. Answer: As per ITIL continual service improvement publication – ‘Knowledge management plays a key role in continual service improvement and Wisdom is gained at each service lifecycle phase’. That makes the option B as the most appropriate answer and option A, C and D as incorrect. 6. Identify the best option specifying the correct description of governance within CSI. A) Enterprise governance: Describes a framework that covers both the corporate governance and the business management aspects of the organization. Corporate governance: Promotes corporate fairness, transparency & accountability. IT governance: Ensure that the Organization’s IT sustains and extends the organization’s strategies and objectives. B) Governance has no role in continual service improvement. C) IT governance: Describes a framework that covers both the corporate governance and the business management aspects of the organization. Corporate governance: Promotes corporate fairness, transparency & accountability. Enterprise governance: Ensure that the Organization’s IT sustains and extends the organization’s strategies and objectives. D) IT Governance and Enterprise governance has no interrelationship. Answer Option A is the correct answer as it describes the correct definition of Enterprise, Corporate and IT governance. Option B is wrong as governance has key role in implementing the continual service improvement whereas C is incorrect description of the Enterprise and IT governance. And, IT governance and Enterprise governance are linked to each others that make the option D as incorrect. 7. CSI works in conjunction with various frameworks, quality standards, models and standards. Which of the following best describes such models? A) Six Sigma: an information systems audit framework, matured to become an overall IT management framework. Often used by IT and SOX auditors.PRINCE2 (Project IN Controlled Environments): Structured project management method. CMMI (Capability Maturity Model Integration): The de facto standard for measuring the maturity of any process. B) COBIT: an information systems audit framework, matured to become an overall IT management framework. Often used by IT and SOX auditors. PRINCE2 (Project IN Controlled Environments): Structured project management method. CMMI (Capability Maturity Model Integration): The de facto standard for measuring the maturity of any process. C) Six Sigma: an information systems audit framework, matured to become an overall IT management framework. Often used by IT and SOX auditors.PRINCE2 (Project IN Controlled Environments): Structured project management method. ISO/IEC 20000: The de facto standard for measuring the maturity of any process. D) COBIT: an information systems audit framework, matured to become an overall IT management framework. Often used by IT and SOX auditors.PRINCE2 (Project IN Controlled Environments): Structured project management method. ISO/IEC 20000: The de facto standard for measuring the maturity of any process. Answer: Option B is the correct option as it describes the COBIT, PRINCE2 and CMMI correctly. Option A has a wrong definition for the Six sigma. The Option C and D are having the wrong description for Six sigma and ISO/IEC 20000. 8. Which of the following option best describes the importance of the CSI register in the overall Continual Service improvement stage of the lifecycle? A) CSI register is kept to record all the improvement opportunities and that each one should be categorized into small, medium and large undertaking. CSI register should be considered as part of the service knowledge management system. The CSI register will introduce a structure and visibility to CSI ensuring that all initiatives are captured and recorded, and benefits realized. The CSI register provides a coordinated, consistent view of the potentially numerous improvement activities. B) CSI register is kept to record all the improvement opportunities and that each one should be categorized into small, medium and large undertaking. CSI register should be considered as part of the service knowledge management system. The CSI register will introduce a structure and visibility to CSI ensuring that all initiatives are captured and recorded, and benefits realized. Using the CSI register as the baseline to negotiates service level agreements within the business. C) CSI register is kept to record all the improvement opportunities and that each one should be categorized into small, medium and large undertaking. CSI register should be considered as part of the service knowledge management system. The CSI register will introduce a structure and visibility to CSI ensuring that all initiatives are captured and recorded, and benefits realized. CSI register is used to establish an initial data point to determine if a service or process needs to be improved. D) CSI register is kept to record all the improvement opportunities and that each one should be categorized into small, medium and large undertaking. CSI register should be considered as part of the service knowledge management system. Using the CSI register as the baseline to negotiates service level agreements within the business. CSI register is used to establish an initial data point to determine if a service or process needs to be improved. Answer: Option A is the most correct answer. Option B is not correct as it mentions that using the CSI register as the baseline to negotiate service level agreements within the business and Option C specifies CSI register is used to establish an initial data point to determine if a service or process needs to be improved which is also incorrect. The option D mentions both the wrong options of the option C and Option D making it wrong as well as.

2.21 Frameworks

Frameworks: In our last slide we got introduced to Frameworks, models, standards, quality system. This slide explains the Frameworks. COBIT (Control OBjectives for Information and related Technology), originally created in 1995 as an information systems audit framework, has matured to become an overall IT management framework. COBIT processes and principles are often used by IT and SOX auditors. COBIT is governed by the IT Governance Institute. PMBOK (Project Management Body of Knowledge) is owned and authored by the Project Management Institute (PMI). Introduction to PMBOK – given in 2004 year stated: The Project Management Body of Knowledge is the sum of knowledge within the profession of project management. As with other professions such as law, medicine and accounting, the body of knowledge rests with the practitioners and academics who apply and advance it. The complete Project Management Body of Knowledge includes proven traditional practices that are widely applied, as well as innovative practices that are emerging in the profession, including published and unpublished material. As a result, the Project Management Body of Knowledge is constantly evolving. PRINCE2 (PRojects IN Controlled Environments, v2) is a structured project management method owned by the OGC. Structured project management means managing the project in a logical, organized way following defined steps. A structured project management method is the written description of this logical, organized approach. Individuals can receive certifications verifying their knowledge of each framework. Organizations may be assessed against a framework. In many cases the Capability Maturity Model (CMM) scale is used for these organizational assessments. Let us now move on to our next slide.

2.22 Models

Models: In our last slide we discussed about the Frameworks. This slide explains the concept of types of Models. CMMI (Capability Maturity Model Integration): Created by SEI (Software Engineering Institute) at Carnegie Mellon University in 1991. In the beginning CMM was a model for demonstrating the maturity of software development processes in the belief that more mature development processes led to better software. The basic software CMM model has grown and been revised. CMMI is now the de facto standard for measuring the maturity of any process. Organizations can be assessed against the CMMI model using SCAMPI (Standard CMMI Appraisal Method for Process Improvement). Let us now move on to our next slide.

2.23 Standards

Standards: In our last slide we discussed about the Models. This slide explains the concept of types of standards. • ISO/IEC 20000:2005 promotes the adoption of an integrated process approach to effectively deliver managed services to meet business and customer requirements. For an organization to function effectively it has to identify and manage numerous linked activities. Coordinated integration and implementation of the service management processes provides the ongoing control, greater efficiency and opportunities for continual improvement. (ISO). ISO/IEC 20000 is based on the ITIL service management processes. • ISO/IEC 27001:2005 covers all types of organizations and specifies the requirements for establishing, implementing, operating, monitoring, reviewing, maintaining and improving a documented Information Security Management System within the context of the organization’s overall business risks. It specifies requirements for the implementation of security controls customized to the needs of individual organizations or parts thereof. It is designed to ensure the selection of adequate and proportionate security controls that protect information assets and give confidence to interested parties. ISO 14000 is the Environmental management standard. This standard Minimize how operations negatively affect the environment Let us now move on to our next slide.

2.24 Quality system

Standards:Quality systems: In our last slide we discussed about the standards. This slide explains the concept of types of quality systems ISO 9000: The ISO 9000 family of standards relates to quality management systems and is designed to help organizations ensure they meet the needs of customers and other stakeholders. ‘Six Sigma’ was pioneered at Motorola in 1986 and was originally defined as a metric for measuring defects and improving quality, and a methodology to reduce defect levels below six standard deviations or six sigma. In 1995 it was implemented at GE and has since become the most widely recognized and accepted quality system in the world. To achieve Six Sigma, a process must not produce more than 3.4 defects per million opportunities or 99.99966% error free Let us now move on to our next slide.

2.25 Plan- Do- Check- Act cycle

Plan- Do- Check-Act cycle: In our last slide we discussed about the standards. This slide explains the concept of PDCA cycle. ISO management system standards use the PDCA cycle as shown in figure. For quality improvement W. Edwards Deming proposed the Deming Cycle or Circle. This cycle is particularly applicable in CSI. The four key stages of the cycle are Plan, Do, Check and Act, after which a phase of consolidation prevents the circle from rolling back down the hill. Our goal in using the Deming Cycle is steady, ongoing improvement. It is a fundamental tenet of Continual Service Improvement. The Deming Cycle is critical at two points in CSI: implementation of CSIs, and for the application of CSI to services and service management processes. At implementation, all four stages of the Deming Cycle are used. With ongoing improvement, CSI draws on the check and act stages to monitor, measure, and review and implement initiatives. The cycle is underpinned by a process-led approach to management where defined processes are in place, the activities are measured for compliance to expected values and outputs are audited to validate and improve the process. Let us now move on to our next slide.

2.26 Critical Success Factor

Critical Success Factor: In our last slide we discussed about the PDCA cycle. This slide explains the Critical Success Factors of CSI practice. An effective CSI practice will be integrated within all phases of the service Lifecycle The greatest value to the business and IT will be realized by having a continuous monitoring and feedback loop as the service and ITSM processes move through the service Lifecycle Look for improvement opportunities within service strategy, service design, service transition and service operations Imperative that the concept of continual improvement integrated into the day-to-day fabric of the organization Let us now move on to our next slide.


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