All developers write code that conforms to some kind of framework. These frameworks aid in development by providing an automatic implementation of redundant tasks to reduce development time. They help developers to focus a greater amount of their time on application logic rather than having to worry about low-level details such as protocols, sockets, or process management. There are a number of Python frameworks available which we will discuss in this article.
What are Frameworks in Python?
Python is one of the most popular and effective programming languages that contain vast libraries and frameworks for almost every technical domain. Python frameworks automate the implementation of several tasks and give developers a structure for application development. Each framework comes with its own collection of modules or packages that significantly reduce development time. A Python framework can either be full-stack, micro, or asynchronous. Before going into the popular Python frameworks in detail, let's briefly introduce the various types of frameworks.
A full-stack framework contains all the web development requirements. These include form generators, template layouts, form validation, and lots more.
Micro frameworks require a bit of manual work from developers. It is used for minimalistic web application development since it lacks most of the functionality that comes along with full-stack frameworks.
Asynchronous frameworks use the asyncio library to run a number of processes concurrently. They can handle a large number of concurrent connections.
Why Use a Framework?
There are a number of redundant operations in web development. Python frameworks allow developers to reuse code for common HTTP operations. The projects are structured in such a way that other developers with knowledge of that particular framework can easily use it to build and maintain web applications. Some more advantages of using Python frameworks are listed below:
- Easier implementation
- Good documentation
- Efficient operations
- Secure framework
- Code reusability
- Easy integration
Library vs Framework
A library is a collection of packages that perform specific operations whereas a framework contains the basic flow and architecture of an application. The major difference between them is the complexity. Libraries contain a number of methods that a developer can just call whenever they write code. With frameworks, you would need to build the rest of the other functionalities. However, frameworks offer a key advantage - flexibility. They provide the necessary tools and features that developers can extend and build upon.
Top 5 Frameworks In Python
There are a number of Python frameworks available in the market for web development. Depending on the functionality and key features they provide to the user, here are the top 5 frameworks available in Python:
Django is a popular open-source full-stack Python framework that includes all the necessary Python features by default. It follows the DRY principle - Don’t Repeat Yourself. Django uses an ORM or object-relational mapper to map objects to database tables. This helps you use the object-oriented paradigm to manipulate data from a database. The main databases that Django works on are Oracle, MySQL, PostgreSQL, and SQLite. It can also work on other databases using third-party drivers. Here are some more exemplary features of the Django web framework:
- URL routing
- Template engine
- Database schema migrations
- A plethora of ready-to-use libraries
- More secure as compared to other frameworks
Web2Py is another popular open-source and full-stack Python framework. It is platform-independent, which means that it can run on all the popular operating systems. Furthermore, it simplifies the web application development process through its own web-based IDE that includes a code editor, a debugger, and one-click deployment. Here are some more features of the Web2Py framework:
- No prerequisites for installation and configuration
- Can read multiple protocols
- Support different platforms
- Data security
- Error tracking mechanism
- Role-based access control
- Backward compatibility
Flask is a micro-framework for Python. It is lightweight and easily adaptable to suit a developer’s needs. The Flask framework comes under the BSD license and requires the Werzeug WSGI toolkit and Jinja2 templates. Here are some of the main features of the Flask framework:
- Fast debugger
- Jinja2 templating
- Built-in development server
- HTTP request handling
- WSGI compliance
- Integrated support for unit testing
- RESTful request dispatching
- Secure cookies support
- Ability to plug any ORM
Bottle is a micro-framework for prototyping and building simple personal applications. It was originally meant for building APIs and is considered by developers as one of the finest Python web frameworks. It also allows developers to work closely with the hardware to build small and simplistic personal use apps. Here are some of the main features of the Bottle framework:
- A built-in development server
- Access to form data, cookies, headers, file uploads, cookies, headers, etc.
- Includes plugin support for different databases.
- Abstraction layer over the WSGI standard
CherryPy is an open-source Python framework that follows a minimalist approach for building web applications. Released in 2002, it is one of the oldest Python frameworks still popular today. Unlike other frameworks, you don't need to install the apache server to run CherryPy. With CherryPy, you can build web applications the same way you would an object-oriented program. The best thing about this framework is that it allows you to use any type of technology for creating templates and data access. Here are some more features of using the CherryPy framework:
- A flexible plugin system
- Built-in support for profiling, coverage, and testing
- Can run on different platforms
- Simplifies running multiple HTTP servers at once
Ready to Learn More?
While there are multiple frameworks that you can choose from, you must keep in mind the features and functionalities that each comes with. Choosing the right framework will help you determine the performance of your web development project. If you want to learn more about Python frameworks, you can sign up for Simplilearn’s Post Graduate Program In Full Stack Web Development in partnership with Caltech University and in collaboration with IBM. In this course, you will learn about critical web development topics to help you get started on your journey as an web expert.