Top IT industry experts swear by ASP.NET, design patterns, and spring framework. If you want to pursue a career in IT, you need to know about MVC architecture. This article includes the most frequently asked asp net mvc interview questions to help you prepare for your upcoming interview. Remember to go through the basics of MVC and C# programming before diving in.
Beginners Level MVC Interview Questions
Let us begin with beginner-level asp net mvc interview questions!
1. Explain the MVC application life cycle.
Any web application has two primary execution steps:
- Understanding the request
- Sending out an appropriate response
MVC application life cycle includes two main phases:
- Creating the request object
- Sending response to the browser
The four steps included in creating a request object are:
- filling route
- fetching route
- requesting context created
- controlling instance created
2. What do you understand by filters in MVC?
Controllers in MVC define action methods, and these methods have a one-to-one relationship with UI controls. Example: UserController class contains UserAdd and UserDelete methods. However, many times, we wish to perform some action after or before a particular operation. With the feature provided by ASP.NET MVC, pre and post-action behaviors can be added to the controller's action methods.
3. What is the function of beforeRender() in the controller?
This function is required when we call render() manually before the end of a given action. This function is called before the view is rendered and after controller action logic. It is not used often.
4. What do you know about beforeFilter() and afterFilter() functions in controllers?
beforeFilter() is run every action in the controller. It is the right situation to inspect permissions or check for an active session. At the same time, afterFilter() is called after every rendering is done and after every controller action. This is the last controller method to be run.
5. Define DispatcherServerlet.
DispatcherServerlet is a class that receives incoming requests and maps them to the most appropriate resources, including Views, Models, and Controllers.
6. What is attribute-based routing in MVC?
We have a new attribute route in ASP.NET MVC. By using the ‘route’ attribute, URL structure can be defined. If we decorate the ‘GotoAbout' action with the route attribute, the route attribute says that 'GotoAbout’ can be invoked using the ‘Users/about’ URL structure.
7. How is routing carried out in the MVC pattern?
A group of routes known as RouteCollection consists of registered routes in the application. The RegisterRoutes method records the collection routes. The route and a handler define the URL pattern if the request matches the pattern. The route's name is the first parameter to the MapRoute; the second parameter is the pattern to which URL matches, and the third parameter is default values for the placeholders.
8. What is the difference between ‘ViewResult’ and ‘ActionResult’?
ViewResult is derived from the 'AbstractResult' class, and 'ActionResult’ is an abstract class. ActionResult is good when you are dynamically deriving different types of views. The derived classes of ActionResult are FileStreamResult, ViewResult, and JsonResult.
9. Give the importance of NonActionAttribute.
If we want to prevent the default nature of a public method of a controller from being treated as an action method, then we assign the NonActionattribute to the public method.
10. Define MVC’s partial view.
MVC's partial view renders a portion of view content. This helps in reducing code supplication. In layman's terms, the partial view allows rendering a view within the parent view.
Intermediate Level MVC Questions
In the next section we will cover, some of the most frequently asked intermediate level asp net MVC interview questions!
1. What is MVC Scaffolding?
MVC Scaffolding is a code generation framework for ASP.NET web apps. We use scaffolding when we want to quickly add code that interacts with data operations in our project. This includes entity page templates, filter templates, and field page templates. These are called scaffold templates as they allow us to build a functional data-driven website quickly.
2. Define ORM and give its use.
ORM (object-relational mapping) framework is a framework that helps in reducing the amount of handwritten code in a web app. ORM is used when there are no extreme performance requirements, but frameworks like Dapper can be used in high-load systems.
3. Define POST and GET action types.
POST action type submits data to be processed to a specified resource. We pass the essential URL and data with all the POST requests. It can take up overloads.
GET action type requests data from a specified resource. We pass the compulsory URLs with all the GET requests. It can take up overloads.
4. If we place the log.txt file in the ~/bin/folder of an asp.net MVC application, will it affect the app?
It is not good to put log files in the bin folder because change will cause pool restart. This can cause problems that would be difficult to track down.
5. How will you implement validation in MVC?
We can implement validation in the MVC application with the help of validators defined in the System.ComponentModel.DataAnnotations namespace. The different validators are DataType, Required, Range, and StringLength.
6. In the ASP.NET Core project, which basic folders use the MVC template without Areas?
The following folders use the MVC template without Areas:
- Controllers- default folder for application controllers
- wwwroot- publicly accessible folder of a site containing subfolders of static files
- Views- folder containing a folder for every controller and a particular folder shared for views used by controllers or multiple views.
7. What do you understand by WebAPI?
8. Tell us the benefit of using an IoC container in an application.
The benefits include external management of life of every object, change of implementation of the contract in future, change to dependency list not affecting an object using the service, and sharing of an instance by several unrelated customers.
9. Can you tell two instances where routing is not required or implemented?
We do not require routing when routing is disabled for a URL pattern and when a physical file matching the URL pattern is found.
10. What is the valuable lifetime for an ORM context in an ASP.NET MVC application?
The lifetime needs to be the same as the requests do not live long. If it is possible to wrap the whole request in one transaction, it can help comply with ACID principles.
Advanced Level MVC Interview Questions
In this last section, we are going to learn some of the advanced asp net MVC interview questions!
1. How is form authentication implemented in MVC?
Authentication means giving users access to a specific service on verification of identity using username and password. It assures that the correct user is logged in for a specific service, and exemplary service is provided to the user based on their role.
2. What do you understand by ViewState in MVC?
One of the most common asp net interview questions is based on ViewState. Unlike WebForms, MVC does not have ViewState. This is because ViewState is stored in a hidden field on the page, which increases its size significantly and impacts the page loading time.
3. Define Spring MVC.
Spring MVC is a Java framework that follows the MVC design pattern and builds web applications. It implements all features of a core spring Framework like Dependency injection and inversion of control. With the help of DispatcherServlet, Spring MVC provides a dignified solution for using MVC in Spring Framework. This class receives incoming requests and maps them to view models and controllers.
4. How is exception handling carried out in MVC?
We can override the ‘OnException' event in the controller and set the result to the view name needed to be invoked when an error occurs.
public ActionResult Index()
int l = 1;
int m = 0;
int n = 0;
m = l / m; //it would cause exception.
protected override void OnException(ExceptionContext filterContext)
string action = filterContext.RouteData.Values["action"].ToString();
Exception e = filterContext.Exception;
filterContext.ExceptionHandled = true;
filterContext.Result = new VR()
ViewName = "err"
5. Define HTML helpers.
Methods that return HTML string are known as HTML helpers. There are only a few inbuilt helpers that are of use. We can create custom helpers to meet our needs. They are like webforms controls as both HTML helpers and webforms return HTML. However, HTML helpers are lightweight.
6. What is the Database First approach in MVC, which uses the Entity Framework?
The database first approach is an alternative to Model First, and Code First approaches to the Entity Data model. This helps create a model class and DbContext, classes, and properties such that a link can be made between controller and database.
7. What is the need to use Html.Partial in MVC?
This method renders the specified partial view as an HTML string. It does not depend on any action methods. It is used like this: @Html.Partial(“TestPartialView”)
8. How is JSON response returned from the Action method?
To return the JSON response Action method, we need to return the JsonResult object. This object calls the Json helper method. The given an example returns a response in JSON format:
public JsonResult sample()
string send = "hello";
return Json(send, JsonRequestBehavior.AllowGet);
9. Tell us the benefit of the area in MVC.
The Area in MVC helps to integrate with other areas generated by other apps, helps organize views, controllers, and models in different functional sets, and is suitable for unit testing.
10. What do you understand by Model Binding?
In action methods, we need to retrieve data from requests to be used by the data. In MVC, model binding maps data from HTTP request to action method parameters. This task of retrieving data from HTTPRequest is repetitive and is removed from the action method.
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