Software testing is the process of examining and certifying that a software program performs as expected. Software testing is broadly divided into two: automated testing and manual testing. The type of testing to be used depends on a few factors, such as schedules, funds, demands of the project, and competence. Preventing defects and boosting performance are advantages of 

testing. Any effective software development endeavor must include testing.

What is Manual Testing?

Manual testing is a test in which we execute the testing without using any tools. It is the procedure through which Quality Assurance analysts conduct tests individually, one at a time. Before a software program operates, manual testing is used to find defects and functional issues. Testers must identify deviations and irregularities from anticipated behavior and report them to developers as defects. Manual testing takes time since humans perform it, and human mistakes are possible. When testing an application manually, the tester can do it without prior computer programming expertise.

What is Automation Testing?

Frameworks are used in automation testing to conduct tests. The automation rules specific to the program being tested are coded into each framework. The development of test scripts and software validation is done by testers using the necessary automation tools. These testing tools may also manage the conduct of tests, access test information, and evaluate outcomes to predicted results. The aim is to finish test execution in the shortest period possible. Software testing may be made more successful, productive, and accurate by using automation testing.

Manual and Automation Testing: Key Differences


Manual Testing

Automation Testing


This is software testing, where the test engineer evaluates an application's functioning to justify the client's needs.

Automation testing is used if the program has multiple versions or regression curves. 


Manual testing is less accurate owing to the increased possibility of human mistakes.

Automation testing is more accurate since computer-based testing eliminates the possibility of mistakes.


Since there is a chance for human mistakes, the program may only be supplied with errors making it unreliable.

As a result of using tooling and test procedures to test the program, it is trustworthy.


The initial expenditure in manual testing is far cheaper. However, in the long term, ROI is lower than automation testing.

The upfront cost of automated testing is greater. However, the long-term ROI is higher.


Human resource investment is required.

Both testing tools and automation engineers demand investment.

Scale Testing

When testing on a wide scale, manual testing takes time.

A large-scale test may be carried out with ease and efficiency using automation testing.

Visibility of Test Reports

In the manual, the findings of tests are typically kept in Excel, and they are only sometimes immediately available.

All parties involved in the test may log in to the automation system and review the outcomes of the execution.

Knowledge of program

Manual testing does not need programming.

Automation testing requires programming expertise.

Areas of expertise

Manual testing should be utilized for exploratory examination and ad hoc testing to achieve the greatest results.

Automation testing should be utilized for the greatest results for Quality Testing, Efficiency Testing, and Repetitive Operation.

Human observation 

The manual testing approach allows for human observation, which may be beneficial in providing a user-friendly system.

Human consideration is not used in automated testing. As a result, it will never ensure user appeal or exceptional customer service.

Skills user must possess

To create test plans that account for every eventuality, users must be able to simulate user behavior.

Users must be proficient in computing and programming to construct test scenarios and automate every possible scenario as feasible.

Testing of performance 

Manual testing does not allow for performance testing.

Automation test engineers must execute Performance Testing to test the application's performance using stress testing.

Compatibility with various operating systems

Because a distinct tester is needed to do these tasks, operating system compatibility cannot be tested manually.

Additionally, automation testing may be carried out on numerous platforms and operating systems.

Ideal approach 

Manual testing is handy when a test case must be performed once or twice.

Automation testing might be helpful when running an equivalent set of scenario tests again.


Manual test cases are of no use for training.

Automated Tests serve as a training manual, particularly for automated unit test cases. A new developer may rapidly understand the code base using unit test cases.

Test design 

Manual unit testing only influences design throughout the coding process.

Automated unit tests promote and support Test Driven Development Design.


Manual testing is more likely to miss the predetermined test deadline.

There is no possibility of missing a predetermined test with automated tests.

Efficiency of Testing

It takes more time and could be more efficient.

Increased efficiency and more tests in less time.

Pros and Cons of Manual Testing

Pros of Manual Testing

1. Human Intelligence is Used to Detect Faults.

Testers can employ higher-order cognitive skills like logical reasoning when identifying software flaws through manual testing. This assists people in detecting flaws that automated testing may overlook.

2. The Expenses is Cheaper in the Short Term.

It is expensive to purchase automated software tools. You won't need to invest as much money upfront when doing manual testing.

3. More Likely to Discover Actual User Complaints.

Manual testing enables the developing program to be used exactly as it will be when it is released. In addition, manual testing is more likely to catch issues that arise when a user interacts with the program in a certain way.

4. Manual Testing Allows for Greater Flexibility.

Manual testing allows you to test rapidly and view the results. On the other hand, automatic testing takes longer to set up, making it difficult to test ideas fast and easily.

Cons of Manual Testing 

1. It Takes Longer Than Automated Testing.

Manual testing necessitates additional hours spent carefully examining every component and feature of the program. This takes longer than performing automated tests, which only take a fraction of the time. 

2. Manual Jobs Take Time to Complete.

Manually performing some tasks might be challenging. This type of testing is exceedingly difficult to execute manually, making it prone to errors and overlooks. Once set up, automated testing is significantly more suited to detect problems in this type of testing.

3. Testers Must Have Extensive Product Knowledge.

Before using a product efficiently, manual testers must have a firm grasp of it. This enables people to detect flaws automated testing may overlook if their expertise is insufficient. Testers can be proficient with some of the capabilities and functions of automated testing.

4. Not Engaging

Nobody likes to continually complete the same forms, which makes manual testing monotonous and repetitious. Because of this, many testers need help to stay focused on the procedure, which increases the likelihood that mistakes will be made.

Pros and Cons of Automation Testing

Pros of Automation Testing

1. Enhanced Precision

One of the key advantages of automation testing is that it may improve accuracy. In addition, compared to manual testing, automation testing runs more often and consistently. When working with a sizable code, this might be helpful.

2. Faster Performance

Automated testing may also result in quicker test execution. This is due to the tests being run simultaneously rather than successively. In addition, the number of tests that may be run simultaneously increases throughput.

3. Can Be Economical

While automation solutions may be costly in the short term, they will ultimately save you funds in the long run. This is because they can detect flaws quickly and do more than someone could in a given period.

Cons of Automation Testing 

1. Complication

Automated tests may need more time to create than manual tests, particularly if they could be better conceived. As a result, it may be more difficult to integrate them into your software creation workflow.

2. The Cost of Tools Might Be High.

Automation tools might be expensive to obtain. Therefore, you must utilize those that will provide you with total protection or as near to it as you can discover.

3. It Takes Time to Use Tools.

Although the automation process reduces the time it takes to test everything manually, automated testing still requires a lot of time. This is because automated tests take a long time to build and execute.

Manual Testing vs. Automation Testing: Which is Better?

On the side, human testing makes it easier to spot minor flaws, but automated testing necessitates thorough test writing and execution. Automated testing, on the other hand, makes writing and test cases for duplicate jobs easier. Although costly and time-consuming, manual testing is still useful in some circumstances. However, automation not only speeds up the process but also saves money.


1. Manual or automation testing, which is difficult?

Manual testing will handle complex tests, while automation testing will handle repetitive jobs. Using a combination of both can improve the efficiency of your testing process.

2. What are the different manual and automation testing tools?

Some testing tools are ZAP, Bugzilla, Tessy, JIRA, etc.

3. Is manual testing a good career?

If you understand what it means to be responsible for your product and have the coding vision, then manual testing is an extremely fulfilling job.

4. Is automation testing a good career?

Automation testing is also a promising career if you know how to use automation tools.

5. Can a manual tester learn Selenium?

Yes, a manual tester can learn Selenium with the use of any one programming language. 


It is critical to plan which tests will be performed manually and which will be automated. Two broad categories are covered by both manual and automated testing. Specific testing methods are available under each category, such as black box testing, integration evaluation, performance testing, and testing for the load. Some of these techniques work better when tested manually, while others work better automatically.

If you are looking to enhance your software testing skills further, we highly recommend you to check Simplilearn’s Automation Testing Masters Program. This program can help you build the right automation testing skills and make you better prepared for the future.

If you have any questions or queries, feel free to post them in the comments section below. Our team will get back to you at the earliest.