As a far extra contemporary programming language, C# was designed to paint with the modern-day Microsoft .NET framework in both purchaser and internet-based total applications. While C++ is an item-oriented language, C# is taken into consideration a component-orientated programming language.
What Is C++?
C++ is a cross-platform programming language for developing high-performance applications. Bjarne Stroustrup created C++ as an extension to the C programming language. C++ gives programmers a lot of power over the system's memory and resources. C++ is one of the most widely used programming languages in the world. Today's operating systems, graphical user interfaces, and embedded systems all contain it. It's an object-oriented programming language that offers programs a logical framework, and allows code to be reused, reducing development expenses. C++ is a portable programming language that may be used to create applications that run on a variety of systems.
What Is C#?
C# (pronounced "C sharp") is a general-purpose, contemporary, and object-oriented programming language. It was created by Microsoft as part of the .NET program, coordinated by Anders Hejlsberg and his team, and was authorized by the European Computer Manufacturers Association (ECMA) and the International Standards Organization (ISO) (ISO). The present version of C# is one of the languages for Common Language Infrastructure.
History of C++
The language's name was changed from C with Classes to C++ in 1983. The ++ operator in the C programming language is used to increment a variable, which reveals something about Stroustrup's attitude toward the language. Virtual functions, function overloading, references with the & symbol, the const keyword, and single line comment using double slashes were among the many new features implemented around this time.
C++ was released as a commercial product in 1985. The language had not yet been standardized. Protected and static members, as well as inheritance from multiple classes, were added to the language in 1989.
Turbo C++ was first launched as a commercial product in 1990. Turbo C++ included a slew of new libraries that have had a significant impact on C++'s evolution.
The C++ standards committee issued ISO/IEC 14882:1998, sometimes known as C++98, as the first worldwide standard for C++ in 1998. The Standard Template Library was also included, which began conceptual development in 1979. The committee responded to various issues raised with their 1998 standard in 2003 by revising it properly. C++03 was the new language's name.
The new C++ standard (C++11) was completed in mid-2011. The auto keyword, new container classes, greater support for unions and array-initialization lists, and varia support were among the new features. Regex support, a randomization library, a new C++ time library, atomics support, a standard threading library, a new for loop syntax providing functionality similar to for each loops in certain other languages, a new for loop syntax providing functionality similar to for each loops in some other languages, a new for loop syntax providing functionality similar to for each loop.
History of C#
C# v1.0 came with the .NET framework 1.0,1.1, as well as Microsoft Visual Studio 2002 and the CLR version 1.0.
C# 2.0 was released alongside the .NET Framework 2.0, which included CLR 2.0, and Microsoft Visual Studio 2005.
C# 3.0 was released with the .NET Framework 3.0, CLR 2.0, and Microsoft Visual Studio 2008.
C# v4.0 was released alongside the .NET Framework 4.0, which included the CLR version 4.0, as well as Microsoft Visual Studio 2010.
C# v5.0 was released in conjunction with the .NET Framework 4.5, which included CLR version 4.0, and Microsoft Visual Studio 2012 and 2013.
C# v6.0 was released in conjunction with the .NET Framework 4.6, which included CLR version 4.0, and Microsoft Visual Studio 2013, 2015.
C# v7.0 included the .NET Framework 4.6, 4.6.1, and 4.6.2, as well as Microsoft Visual Studio 2015 and 2017.
Microsoft Visual Studio 2019 and the.NET framework 4.8 with CLR version 4.0 were included with C# v8.0.
Principles of C++ Development
This is the fundamental building block of object-oriented programming. That is, both data and data-operating functions are grouped together as an object.
When you create a class, you're essentially creating a blueprint for an item. It does not describe any data, but it does specify what the class name signifies, that is, what a class object will be made up of and what operations can be performed on it.
Data abstraction is defined as delivering only important information to the outer world while masking background details, i.e. representing the required information in a program without showing the specifics.
Encapsulation is the process of putting data and the functions that operate with it in the same location. It's not always clear which functions work on which variables when dealing with procedural languages, but object-oriented programing gives you a framework for putting data and relevant functions together in the same object.
Code reusability is one of the most beneficial properties of object-oriented programming. As the name implies, inheritance is the process of creating a new class from an existing class known as the base class. The new class is known as the derived class. This is a crucial notion in object-oriented programming since it aids in the reduction of code size.
Polymorphism is the capacity to employ an operator or function in different ways, or to give different meanings or functions to the operators or functions. The term "poly" means "many." Polymorphism refers to a single function or operator that can be used in a variety of ways depending on the context.
Polymorphism also includes the concept of overloading. It is considered to be overloaded when an existing operator or function is made to work on a new data type.
Principles of C# Development
Single Responsibility Principle (SRP)
The SRP principle asserts that if a class has two reasons to change, the functionality should be separated into two classes. Each class will be responsible for only one task.
Open Closed Principle (OCP)
The OpenClosed Principle in object-oriented programming argues that "software entities (classes, modules, functions, etc.) should be open for extension but closed for modification," which means that an entity's behavior can be extended without affecting its source code.
Liskov Substitution Principle (LSP)
The Liskov Substitution Principle (LSP, lsp) is an Object Oriented Programing principle that states that functions that employ pointers or references to base classes must be able to access objects from derived classes without being aware of it.
Interface Segregation Principle (ISP)
According to the InterfaceSegregation Principle (ISP), no client should be made to rely on methods that it does not employ. ISP, like GRASP's High Cohesion Principle, is one of the five SOLID principles of object-oriented design.
Dependency Inversion Principle (DIP)
The Dependency Inversion Principle is a type of loosely coupled software module used in object-oriented architecture. High-level modules should not rely on low-level modules, according to the principle. Abstraction should be used in both cases.
C++ is a low-level programing language
whereas C# is a high-level language.
C++ compiles to machine code, whereas C# compiles to CLR (Common Language Runtime).
C# 'compiles' to CLR (Common Language Runtime), which is interpreted by JIT in ASP.NET
C++ is an object-oriented programing language,that extends C with object-oriented capabilities
C# is a component-oriented language.
Memory management in C++ is done by the programmer manually. If a programmer creates an object, he is responsible for destroying it once the object's task is completed.
The garbage collector in C# handles memory management automatically. If a programmer constructs an object, the garbage collector will automatically trash it once the object's task is completed.
Code written in C++ can run on any platform. When an application has to interface directly with hardware, C++ is employed.
C# code is only compatible with Windows. Although Microsoft is attempting to make it universal, major operating systems do not currently support C#.
Multiple inheritance is supported in C++ via classes. This means that a class can extend to multiple classes at the same time.
Multiple inheritances through classes are not supported in C#.
The compiler in C++ does not do bound checking. If a programmer accesses an illegal array index by accident, the result will be incorrect, but no compilation fault will be displayed.
The compiler in C# does bound checking in arrays. If a programmer accesses an erroneous array index by accident, a compilation error will occur.
Pointers in C++ can be utilized in any part of the program.
Only in unsafe mode can pointers be utilized in C#.
After compilation, C++ code is directly translated to machine code.
After compilation, C# code is transformed to intermediate language code.
C++ development should adhere to a specific architecture and be portable.
C# development should be simple, fast, and general-purpose.
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In this article, we learned about C++ and C# along with their respective history. We discussed the principles of development of C++ and C# programming language and the key differences between the two.
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