Project Management Processes Tutorial

3.1 Lesson 03 - Project Management Processes

Hello and welcome to PMP Certification Course offered by Simplilearn! In this lesson, we will focus on project management processes. Let us begin with the objectives of this lesson.

3.2 Objectives

After completing this lesson, you will be able to: ?Differentiate between Project Life Cycle and Project Management Process ?Name the five Project Management Process Groups ?Describe the Process Group Interactions ?Recognize processes aligned to different Process Groups and Knowledge Areas ?Identify the inputs and actions of Project Management Process Groups Let us now begin with understanding the differences between project life cycle and project management process.

3.3 Project Life Cycle Vs. Project Management Process

Project life cycle addresses the question, “What to do to get the work done?” It varies industry wise. For example, let us look at a typical project life cycle in a software industry. First, you understand what is required and analyze it as part of the requirement analysis phase. Then, as part of the design phase, you figure out the implementation of it and arrive with the approach. Next, you implement the functionality by writing the code as part of the coding phase. The code is then verified to ensure it works right, as part of the testing phase. The tested and verified software is then installed at the customer locations, as part of the installation phase. After the installation, the system then moves into operations and support phase. The project management process addresses the question: “What to do to manage the project?” The processes for managing the projects are likely to be the same across industries. For instance, in the develop schedule process, one needs to develop the project schedule, irrespective of the industry or domain you are working. In the next screen, let us understand the project management process groups.

3.4 Project Management Process Groups

The project management processes are divided into 5 process groups. They are initiating process group; planning process group; executing process group; monitoring and controlling process group; and closing process group. The initiating process happens at the beginning of the project or a phase. The planning, executing, and monitoring and controlling processes go together. Therefore, you plan, execute, and re-plan based on the execution result. The project closing processes are performed when the project work or a phase within the project is completed. The typical project management process in the closing phase releases resources back to the resource pool, so the team members can be assigned to another project. Note the iteration of processes within the phases is dependent on the scale of the projects. Small projects may have only one iteration, whereas bigger projects may have multiple iterations before they enter a new phase. Project management processes are overlapping activities. Let us look at the interaction between these activities in the next screen.

3.5 Process Group Interactions

Process groups have overlapping activities that occur throughout the project life cycle. The output of one process group is generally the input to another or a deliverable of the project. For example, project management plan is an output of planning process group and an input to execution process group. Note that production of the plan is not a one-time activity. As the project progresses, the project management plan may get updated as a result of the monitoring and controlling processes. The updated project management plan once again forms an input to the execution process group. In the next screen, we will discuss the project management process group, knowledge area, and project management process mapping.

3.6 Project Management Process Map

Given on the screen is the list of the forty-seven project management processes, ten knowledge areas, and five process groups. The table shows how each of them is interrelated. You can see that the Project Integration Management processes can be mapped back to all the five Process Groups, while Project Scope Management processes are mapped back to only planning and monitoring process group. Study the table to identify processes under project management and the knowledge area they belong to. All the 47 processes are described in detail in this tutorial. Each knowledge area is covered in detail as a lesson. It also covers how the processes map to process groups to help you understand the big picture. Further, the inputs and outputs of each of these processes, tools and techniques that are used in these processes, and what exactly happens during these processes are also discussed. In the next screen, we will cover each of the process groups.

3.7 Project Management Process Groups-Dashboard

There are five project management process groups. They are Initiating Process Group, Planning Process Group, Executing Process Group, Monitoring and Controlling Process Group, and Closing Process Group. Note that each of the five process groups is assigned a particular color. This color scheme is followed throughout the course. The initiating process group is shown in yellow, planning in blue, executing in red, monitoring and controlling in green, and closing in grey. Click each Process Group to know the input and actions taken during the process. Initiating Process Group The initiating process group formally starts a project after considering the business case and establishing the feasibility of the project. Typically, the initiating processes will result in the authorization or official approval for a project or a new phase within that project to begin. Project charter, a document that authorizes a project, is a formal “go ahead” on the project and is issued by the senior management of the organization. The project charter has information such as the project manager, key stakeholders of the project, what the product or service of the project is, high-level data of risk, cost, and schedule of the project. The project is officially authorized when the project charter is approved. Let us now look into the inputs to the initiating process group and the actions taken during this process. The initiating process group receives various inputs. First is the project statement of work. This is provided by the project sponsor or whoever is initiating the idea. If the project is started under a contract or an agreement, then the contract or agreement is the input. If the project is undertaken to meet some business need of the organization, then the business case is the input. You will frequently come across the terms Enterprise environmental factors and organizational process assets throughout this tutorial. Enterprise environmental factors include everything that defines the context in which the work of the project will be performed, including the organization structure, culture, and political environment. Organizational process assets include all the past data of the organization related to work on similar projects, the process templates, and know-how that can be used by the project manager. If the project is being done as part of a contract with an external customer, procurement documents also form inputs to initiating processes. Now, let’s look at the actions taken in the initiating process group. The project assessment with key stakeholders such as sponsors, senior management, and project management office must be carried out using the available inputs, such as project statement of work, the business need, and agreement. During the assessment, you can consider the historical data from organizational process assets and environmental factors. This helps in understanding the feasibility of the products or services to be delivered based on the assumptions and constraints. After carrying out the feasibility and assessment, you can start identifying the key deliverables such as product, service, or the results to achieve the project goals. Once the project is decided, an important document will be developed called the Project Charter. This is developed by the sponsor, PMO, or senior management. The project charter consists of elements such as project justification—which is the benefit analysis and business values in alignment with organizational strategy, high level scope, schedule, cost, risk, key milestones, and key stakeholders list. It also identifies the project manager. The project manager needs to participate in the development of the project charter to ensure stakeholder’s agreement. The project charter approval to gain authority and commitment of the stakeholders is required. The project charter authorizes the project manager to start further activities. Based on this project charter document, the project manager starts identifying the stakeholders. While identifying the stakeholders, project manager carries the stakeholder analysis by understanding the power, interest, and influence of the stakeholders towards the project. Stakeholder identification is a continuous process. It needs to be carried out at the start of every phase of the project. It is important for the project manager to identify high level risks using current and past data to propose implementation strategy. Project manager must seek for project charter approval to gain the authority and commitment. Also during the initiating, the project manager communicates the elements of the project charter to stakeholders to align the expectations and support for the project success. You may get questions in the PMP exam, based on the inputs and activities of the initiating process group. Click close to go to the Process Group dashboard. Planning Process Group The planning process group determines if the objectives laid down in the project charter can be achieved. It establishes the total scope of effort, objectives, and course of action required to attain those objectives. The planning process group prepares a blueprint of how the project will be accomplished. The primary inputs required to carry the planning process groups are project charter, stakeholder register, project staff assignments, agreements, organizational process assets, enterprise environmental factors, and resource calendar. The project charter helps in the development of subsidiary plans, such as scope, cost, schedule, and risk management plans. A subsidiary plan is a sub-plan within the project management plan, which helps establish how to execute, control, and close the project. Stakeholder register consists of the list of stakeholders for the project. Using this document, the project manager can discuss with the relevant stakeholders to collect the requirements. The document also helps in getting the team’s buy-in. The project staffing assignment document provides the input to who is working on which activity. Agreements help in understanding the detailed scope, budget, and the time line for the planning purpose, as it consists of terms and conditions. Organizational process assets and Enterprise environmental factors help identify the elements which can influence to make the project a success. Resource calendar supports in planning the schedule, as it contains information on available resources with their calendar, those who work part-time or full-time, and their leave plans. (Roy: This was the line you suggested to be corrected. Here it is ?) Now, let’s look at the actions taken in the planning process group. By doing the review and assessment of the project charter, you can establish the detailed project deliverables. The main action that is carried out in the planning process group is development of the project management plan. It consists of subsidiary plans and the project baselines. There are sixteen elements within the project management plan. Out of which, thirteen are subsidiary plans as listed on the screen; and the rest are baseline scope, cost, and schedule. Subsidiary plans provide guidelines on carrying out the activities within the respective knowledge areas, that is, how to execute, control, and close the projects. For example, schedule management plan provides guidelines on the estimation techniques to be used to develop schedule; and ways to maintain and track project schedules. Risk management plan provides guidelines on identifying the risk, conducting risk analysis, and controlling the risk. Further, human resource plan provides guidelines on how to acquire, develop, and manage the team. Project management plan has to be developed along with the team to obtain approval from the key stakeholders. Kick-off meeting must be conducted to get their buy-in. Note that planning is not a one-time activity. Re-planning, that is, making changes to the plan in response to change requests is also an integral part of planning. Click close to go to the Process Group dashboard. Executing Process Group The purpose of executing process group is to complete the work as defined in the project management plan to satisfy the project specifications. The focus is on stakeholder management, following processes, and ensuring everyone in the project has the same information on the project objectives. The project status is also updated to the stakeholders. The primary input to this process group is the “project management plan.” Other inputs include quality metrics, which contain the attributes to be measured. Change log provides information on status of all the change requests submitted, which helps in communicating to the stakeholders. Enterprise environmental factors and organizational process assets provide data on the necessary factors and limitations to implement the project. Further, proposals given by different sellers from whom you may want to procure some goods or services to complete the project; the approved change requests that need to be implemented; the measurements resulting from quality control processes that need to be considered; make-or-buy decisions that indicate which items will be produced in-house and which items will be procured from others; source selection criteria, which indicate how the procurement decisions will be made; and work performance reports that show the progress on the project are also the inputs for executing process group. Let’s look into the actions taken during executing process. Acquire and manage the project resources per the human resource and procurement management plans. If the resources are required from the vendors, get them per the procurement management plan using seller proposals. The action required here is selecting the sellers and awarding the contract. Once the team is on board, you need to develop, lead the team, and manage the execution to meet the deliverables. Carry out this action per the human resource management plan. Implement the quality assurance activities using quality audit and process analysis, per the quality management plan. Approved changes, corrective and preventive actions, and defect repairs must be implemented per the project management plan. Implement the approved actions to minimize the threat, which is a negative risk and maximize the opportunity, which is a positive risk. Further, produce the project progress report and share it with the stakeholders per the communication management plan. This keeps the stakeholders engaged and informed about the project progress. (Roy: The word ‘progress’ in the first line is misread as ‘process’) Maintaining stakeholder relationships is important for the success of a project. It involves ensuring stakeholder’s expectations are in line with project charter and project management plan; and avoids unrealistic expectations from the stakeholders. Click close to go to the Process Group dashboard. Monitoring and Controlling Process Group The purpose of monitoring and controlling process group is to measure the project performance per the project management plan and take appropriate action. This process group tracks, reviews, and regulates the progress and performance of the project; identifies the areas where changes to the plan are required, and initiates the corresponding changes. The appropriate action can be in the form of corrective and preventive actions. Monitoring means observing and controlling, that is, to take actions to bring things under control. The inputs to the monitoring and controlling process groups are: deliverables produced during execution; work performance data that tells you about the progress made on the project; change requests that may arise during execution; organizational process assets; project management plan and other project documents; the list of selected sellers who will be supplying goods and services to the project. The specific actions to be performed are measure the project progress with respect to time and cost and compare with baselines like schedule and cost. For any deviations, recommend the corrective and preventive actions through change requests. These changes will be addressed using change management plan to align with business needs. The output of executing process is deliverables. These deliverables must be verified and validated to check if they are conforming to the standards. If not, necessary actions must be recommended. Ensure that risk management activities are per the risk management plan and the risk responses implemented according to the plan are working. Reviewing the issue log helps in identifying the corrective actions. The issue resolutions documented in the issue log may become an obstacle for some stakeholders to achieve the project goals. This information will bring a common understanding among all the stakeholders through control communications. Capturing lessons learned enables continuous improvement throughout the project (Roy: ‘throughout’ is misread as ‘through’.). This is one of the important actions to be performed. Also, monitor the sellers to ensure the procurement activities are carried out according to the compliance and the products are delivered per the standards. Click close to go to the Process Group dashboard. Closing Process Group A project is considered complete not when the project’s product is delivered, but only when all the closure formalities have been completed. The closing process group includes administrative activities such as collecting and finalizing all the paper work needed to complete the project and the technical work to verify that the product is acceptable. Remember that PMI expects a mature organization and a certified project manager to be diligent about bringing projects to an orderly closure and use the performance data and lessons learned for planning future projects. The closing process group finalizes the activities across all Project Management Process Groups to formally complete the project, phase, or contractual obligations. This process group also includes work related to transferring the project’s product to those who will maintain and use it, and returning all the project resources to the resource pool. The key inputs to this process group are the project management plan and project documents; accepted project deliverables; documentation pertaining to the items being procured for the project; organizational process assets; and enterprise environmental factors. The actions taken up during the closing process group are as follows: Confirm that all project requirements are met; obtain sign-off or final acceptance of the deliverables from the key stakeholders; hand over the deliverables to the stakeholders per the project management plan, and make payment to all parties, update cost records, and complete contract closure. Further, update the lessons learned database; archive the project documents; and measure customer satisfaction. Click close to go to the Process Group dashboard. Let us now check your understanding of the topics covered in this lesson.

3.8 Quiz

A few questions will be presented in the following screens. Select the correct option and click submit to see the feedback.

3.9 Summary

Here is a quick recap of what was covered in this lesson: ?Project life cycle addresses the question, “What to do to get the work done?” while Project management process addresses the question, “What to do to manage the project?” ?There are 47 processes in project management grouped into ten Knowledge Areas, and mapped to five Process Groups. ?Initiating Process Group defines a new project or phase. When the project charter is approved, the project is officially authorized. ?Planning Process Group establishes the total scope of effort, objectives, and course of action required to attain those objectives. ?Executing Process Group completes the work defined in the project management plan to satisfy the project specifications. ?Monitoring and Controlling Process Group tracks, reviews, and regulates the progress and performance of the project; identifies and initiates the changes to the plan when required. ?Closing Process Group finalizes the activities across all Project Management Process Groups to formally complete the project, phase, or contractual obligations.

3.10 Conclusion

With this, we have come to the end of this lesson. In the next lesson, we will cover project integration management.

  • Disclaimer
  • PMP, PMI, PMBOK, CAPM, PgMP, PfMP, ACP, PBA, RMP, SP, and OPM3 are registered marks of the Project Management Institute, Inc.

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