Virtualization Tutorial

2.1 Virtualization

Hello and welcome to the module of Virtualization part 1 of the CompTIA Cloud Plus course offered by Simplilearn. Virtualization is an integral part of cloud computing and its implementations. It is the latest buzzword that impacts various computing technologies. Business Analysts and Vendors assert that virtualization is much needed and highly useful for all kinds of businesses. Let us discuss the objectives of this module in the next slide.

2.2 Objectives

By the end of this module, you will be able to: Describe the important terminologies of virtualization Explain the types of virtualization List the advantages and limitations of virtualization We will begin the module by discussing the concept of virtualization.

2.3 Introduction to Virtualization

Daniel Kusnetzky, an expert on virtualization technology, quotes “everything is virtualization and nothing is virtualization.” This means the services delivered should be high-end in nature because of virtualization (everything is virtualization), but the feeling a user gets should be of working in a dedicated physical system (nothing is virtualization).” Virtualization is the main supporting technology for cloud computing. Management of IT infrastructure consumes a lot of time causing difficulty in innovating new IT methodologies. An organization may seek performance, reliability or availability, scalability, consolidation, agility, a unified management domain, or some other goal. Virtualization is a technology which offers agility to a business. It is a technique that creates virtual version of our physical hardware or instances. In the era of virtualization, software is categorized as System Software, Application Software, and Hypervisor. Examples for System software are Windows, Linux, etc. Examples of Application Software are MS Office, Firefox etc. A Hypervisor is a type of software which is implemented in a machine to create and manage instances. Examples of Hypervisor are VMware ESX, Citrix etc. As shown in the slide, the hypervisor is installed above the Hardware layer. Multi-tenancy (Read as ten-en-see) is achieved completely since there is isolation of hardware and software, and regulation by hypervisor. Thus, virtualization forms a loosely coupled architecture within a server array. It also helps in efficient resource utilization as a single system can support multiple operating systems. Virtualization improves service levels, keeps cost low, enhances flexibility, and simplifies management. Let us move on to the limitations of technology before virtualization, in the next slide.

2.4 Limitations of Technology before the Advent of Virtualization

Earlier computer architecture had three basic layers. The hardware components form the base layer, the operating system forms the second layer and the application protocols, and standard services layer form the top layer. The diagram of a server blade is shown in the slide. The primary demerit of this type of architecture is that the hardware is not utilized completely and efficiently for a company’s production mode, constantly leading to the need of increasing the hardware. Also, tightly coupled architecture of one operating system bound to the hardware, made it impossible to achieve complete multi-tenancy (Read as ten-en-see). Ideally when a system performs multi-tenancy feature, any malicious activity in a tenant's subscribed services should not affect the other residing tenants. However, in the traditional form, there were no such mechanisms to isolate each tenant. Any error introduced will affect the complete system impacting the quality of service and reputation of the company. The solution to such a problem is virtualization. Let us look into the different criteria for the classification of virtualization in the next slide.

2.5 Classification Criteria of Virtualization

While managing virtualized environments, the software technologies help in provisioning and managing multiple systems as a single computing resource. Security is provided for hardware and software by monitoring and log maintenance, and performing auditing based on the logs. Two practical processes that classify virtualization are business Service Level Agreement process and technical process. Service Level Agreement or SLA is an agreement which decides the relationship between customer and the service provider. Click each type of virtualization to learn more. In access virtualization, the software and hardware technologies permeate almost any device to access any application. The principle being that application should be able to work with the device and the device should know how to display the application. In a few cases, to enhance performance special purpose hardware is used on each side of the network connection. It allows many users to share a single client system, or a single user to see multiple displays. In application virtualization, the software technology lets the applications to run on different operating systems and hardware platforms. This implies that the application has been scripted to use an application framework. It also implies that the applications running on the same system without this framework do not benefit from the advantages of application virtualization. Advanced forms of this technology help in restarting an application in case of a failure, switching to a suitable application in case the present one does not meet service level objectives. It also provides workload balancing among multiple instances of an application to record high levels of scalability. Sophisticated approaches to application virtualization sometimes do not require an application to be rewritten or re-architected using a special application framework. In processing virtualization, the hardware and software technologies hide physical hardware configuration from system services, operating systems, or applications. This type of virtualization technology can make a single system appear as many and many systems appear as a single computing resource while trying to achieve organizational goals. In storage virtualization, the hardware and software technologies hide the information on the location of storage systems and the type of device storing applications and data. This technology allows multiple systems to share the same storage device without giving away information about the other systems accessing the device. This technology also allows taking snapshots of a live system to create backup, without hindering online or transactional applications. In network virtualization, the hardware and software technologies provide a view of the network that differs from the physical view. In such a scenario, a personal computer may be allowed to view only those systems it is allowed to access. Another use of network virtualization is that it helps in making multiple network links appear as a single link. Based on technical implementation process, the types are full virtualization, partial virtualization, OS level virtualization and hardware assisted virtualization. An enterprise would typically have one physical server system for SQL, one for the Apache server, and another server system for the Exchange server. They would perform at only 5% of their full processing potential. To combat this, hardware emulators present a simulated hardware interface to guest operating systems. The hypervisor creates an artificial hardware device to run an operating system and presents an emulated hardware environment that guest operating systems function on. This emulated hardware environment is called a Virtual Machine Monitor or VMM. The applications in each guest operating system run in isolated operating environments, allowing multiple servers to run on a single system independently. This refers to full virtualization. Full virtualization technique provides support to unmodified guest operating systems. Native software, operating systems, and applications also run on the virtual machine. The operating system kernels are not altered to run on a hypervisor and execute privileged operations like ring 0 of the CPU. The hypervisor coordinates the CPU of the server and the host machine's system resources so that the guest operating systems can run without any modification. Hence full virtualization is also called Type 1 Hypervisor. The guest operating system makes system calls to the emulated hardware, under the supervision of the hypervisor. The hypervisor maps these calls onto the underlying hardware. Binary translation of an OS request is a methodology introduced by VMware. The hypervisor provides complete independence to each virtual server running on the same physical machine. Each guest server has its own operating system, and can run Linux and Windows simultaneously. The hypervisor also controls the physical server resources and allocates needed resources to each operating system. Paravirtualization acts as another approach to server virtualization. Instead of simulating a complete hardware environment, paravirtualization acts as a thin layer ensuring that all the guest operating systems share the system resources and work together. To run on the hypervisor, the kernel of the guest operating system is modified. The privileged operations that run on ring 0 of the CPU get replaced with calls to the hypervisor. These calls are known as hypercalls. The hypervisor performs the task on behalf of the guest kernel. It also provides hypercall interfaces for other critical kernel operations such as, memory management, interrupt handling, and time keeping. The guest OS "is aware" of its virtualization, hence paravirtualization is also called Type 2 Hypervisor. The problems faced in full virtualization (read as vir-choo-lie-zay-shun) are fixed in paravirtualization as the guest operating systems are allowed to gain direct access to the underlying hardware. This improves performance and efficiency. As modifications in the OS are required, paravirtualization is also referred to as OS-Assisted Virtualization. OS level virtualization is a technique where the kernel of an operating system allows for multiple isolated user-space instances. These instances that run on an existing host operating system are known as containers, virtual private servers, or virtual environments. The applications interact with a set of libraries provided by the OS level virtualization. These applications remain under the illusion that they are running on a dedicated machine. In operating system level virtualization, the host system runs a single OS kernel through its control of guest operating system functionality. Each virtual guest system has its own root file system in the shared kernel virtualization. But they share the kernel of the host operating system. This is a special case of Hosted Virtualization. The hypervisor or the container has limited functionality, as it relies on the Host OS for scheduling of CPU and memory management. The hosting operating system acts as a hypervisor to include the virtualization processes. Due to this, OS level virtualization is often said to be a technique that only allows for machine consolidation. The IBM System/370 in 1972, was the first hardware-assisted virtualized system to use the first virtual machine VM/370 operating system. Full virtualization or paravirtualization methods present some trade-off in terms of performance and complexity. These issues get compensated for in the new virtualization technologies, Intel VT and AMD-V, introduced by Intel and AMD. These technologies come with a new set of instructions and a privilege level. In hardware-assisted virtualization, the VMM virtualizes the entire x86 instruction set using a classic trap-and-emulate model in hardware. As the hypervisor loads at Ring -1 and guest OS accesses the CPU at Ring 0, it appears to run on a physical host. This lets the guest OS to be virtualized without any modifications. Privileged and sensitive calls automatically get directed to the hypervisor, eliminating the need for either binary translation or paravirtualization. This brings us to the end of our discussion on types of virtualization. In the next slide, we will look at an interaction to list the Advantages and Limitations of Virtualization. The advantages and the limitations of the virtualizations discussed here are: Full Virtualization, Paravirtualization, OS Level Virtualization, and Hardware Assisted Virtualization. Click each tab to learn more. Full virtualization supports multiple operating systems as well as dissimilar operating systems that differ in version, patch level, or type. The guest OS remains oblivious to its virtualization and requires no modification. No hardware assistance or operating system assistance is required to virtualize sensitive and privileged instructions. All the operating system instructions are translated by the hypervisor immediately and cached in for future use, while all the user level instructions run unmodified at their regular speed. The guest OS and the VMM form a consistent package that can be transferred from one machine to another, irrespective of the physical machines they are made to run on. The best isolation and security for virtual machines is provided by full virtualization. It simplifies migration and portability, as the same guest OS instance can run virtualized or on native hardware. In full virtualization, the hypervisor installs directly in the bare metal. Now let us discuss the limitations of full virtualization. The hypervisor consumes a part of the computing power of a physical server while processing data, making the applications to often run slow. Further to this, the process of instruction translation by the hypervisor impedes performance. Driver compatibility problems occur when hardware emulation uses software to get the guest OS to communicate with simulated non-existent hardware. Some amount of difficulty may arise when users try to install new device drivers, while the hypervisor controls the existing device drivers. If the hypervisor has no driver for hardware resources, then the virtualization software cannot be run on that machine. This may pose a problem for those organizations that want to harvest on new hardware developments. There are three advantages of paravirtualization. As the guest kernel can communicate directly with the hypervisor it results in better performance. The thin software layer in paravirtualization allows access to one guest OS to the physical resources of the hardware while preventing other guest OSs from accessing the same resources simultaneously. This is an efficient method of lowering virtualization overhead. Paravirtualizaton does not confine the users to the device driver held in the virtualization software due to its use of privileged guest or the device driver in the guest operating system. As a result, an organization can take advantage of the capabilities of the hardware in a server instead of limiting itself to hardware whose drivers are available in virtualization software (as in the case of full virtualization). In paravirtualization, the hypervisor installs above the OS layer of the system which makes the hypervisor OS dependent. Now let us discuss the limitations. Paravirtualization needs modification in the guest operating systems to be able to interact with interfaces. Hence, support to open source operating systems is limited as in the case of Linux which may be freely altered. Also, paravirtualization limits the support to proprietary operating systems wherein the owners agree to make the necessary code modifications to target a specific hypervisor. Compatibility and portability of paravirtualization are poor as it cannot support unmodified operating systems, for example the Windows group. Support and maintenance issues in the production environment of paravirtualization can arise due to deep OS kernel modifications. Now, let us discuss the advantages of OS level virtualization approach. As this form of virtualization ensures the availability of the machine’s resources for applications running in the containers, it bears very little overhead issues. It is a cost-effective and efficient solution for creating similar guests. Web hosting companies have multiple virtual web servers that run on a single box or blade. Patches or modifications can be easily made to the host server, reflecting instant changes in all the containers. Also in some organizations multiple SQL databases or identical servers within the same datacenter have to be managed. OS level Virtualization Approach is ideal for such companies. This approach normally limits operating system choices due to containerization. Containerization usually means that every guest OS must be identical to the host in terms of version number and patch level. This can pose a problem when one wants to run a different application. For example Linux guest system designed for the 3.0.9 version of the kernel will not share a 3.1.1 version kernel.

2.6 Hardware Assisted Virtualization Advantages and Disadvantages

Hardware-assisted virtualization changes the access to the operating system itself. Unlike software virtualization, the operating system in hardware-assisted virtualization has direct access to resources without any modification. This leads to overall improved performance. In hardware-assisted virtualization, neither does the OS kernel require any tweaking to function, nor does the hypervisor get involved in the binary translation of the sensitive instructions. This fulfills the Popek and Goldberg criteria. Also, hardware-assisted virtualization improves performance as the privileged instructions are directly trapped and emulated in the hardware. Now let us look at the limitations of hardware assisted virtualization. Not all processors can explicitly support the Host CPU as needed in hardware-assisted virtualization. Hardware-assisted virtualization approach comprises many VM traps leading to high CPU overheads and limited scalability impacting the efficiency of server consolidation. Server consolidation requires the capability of hardware to be logically divided which does not happen in hardware-assisted virtualization. In the next slide, we will discuss the proprietary and open-source hypervisor scenarios.

2.7 Proprietary and Open source Hypervisor

When a company is ready to virtualize its infrastructure, it is essential to understand the difference between a proprietary and an open-source hypervisor. A proprietary hypervisor is the one which is developed and licensed for usage to the customer, particularly an organization. No modification to the behavior of this hypervisor can be done as it is owned by a specific organization. Example for the same is VMWare vSphere and Microsoft HyperV. Open-source hypervisor refers to hypervisor which is free of cost, yet the behavior of the hypervisor can be modified by changing the source code. Similar to proprietary hypervisor, it can run multiple VMs in a host machine. Some of the examples of open-source hypervisor are Xen and Kernel Virtual Machine or KVM. Generally Type 1 hypervisor can be used by enterprise for virtualizing the infrastructure whereas Type 2 hypervisor can be used by customers for working in VM. The general customer uses workstation model rather than enterprise model to work on VMs. In the next slide, we will discuss the components of a virtual machine.

2.8 Virtual Machine Components

The two components of a virtual machine are the host server and the guest virtual machine. The host server is the primary hardware that provides computing resources such as processing power, memory, disk, and I/O network. The guest virtual machine is independent in terms of operating system and application software. Guests are the virtual workloads that dwell on a host server and share that server's computing resources. In the next slide, we will discuss the classification criteria for Virtual Machine Monitors.

2.9 Virtual Machine Monitor Classification Criteria

The article "Formal Requirements for Virtualizable Third Generation Architectures" published by Gerald Popek and Robert Goldberg in 1974, introduced three criteria for system software to be considered a Virtual Machine monitor or VMM. They are: Fidelity or Equivalence indicates that the behavior exhibited by a software running under the VMM must be identical to the behavior when running directly on equivalent hardware. This does not factor in the time effect. Performance Efficiency indicates when a vast majority of machine instructions must be executed by the hardware without VMM intervention. Safety or Resource Control indicates that the VMM must be in complete control of the virtualized resources. Although derived under simplified assumptions, these criteria help in determining the efficiency of computer architecture in supporting virtualization, and provide framework for designing virtualized computer architectures. In the next slide, we will discuss the importance of rings in virtualization.

2.10 Importance of Rings in Virtualization

System virtual machines can virtualize a full set of hardware resources such as processor, memory, and storage resources and peripheral devices. Hypervisor, or VMM provides the abstraction of a virtual machine. The representation of the four concentric levels of protection in the original 80386 architecture reference manual, are termed as “rings.” The x86 architecture provides a range of protection levels or rings. The most privileged ring 0 enables the operating system kernel to run and has total control of the processor. The code executing in ring 0 runs in system space, kernel mode, or supervisor mode. Any request from OS layer is directly executed from ring 0 to host hardware. Less privileged rings enable other codes to operate on them. Ring 3 being the last concentric circle provides highest protection permitting only those instructions that will not harm the processor state. Drivers and applications run on ring 3. Irrespective of being a root, administrator, guest, or a regular user, all user codes run in ring 3 and kernel codes run in ring 0. When software requests for a resource from the system, direct execution of user request is done from Ring 3 to host hardware. Let us discuss virtual machines in the next slide.

2.11 Virtual Machine

Virtual machines are the virtual version of a physical machine, which has the property of residing in a multi-tenancy environment. Virtual machines are also called as instances. A hypervisor is required to create a virtual machine. Virtual machine contains Virtual NIC, Virtual Disk, Virtual Networking Features, Virtual Processor, Virtual RAM etc. These are connected to the physical infrastructure in which hypervisor is installed. In the next slide, we will focus on virtual network interface card.

2.12 Virtual NIC

Virtual NIC (vNIC) is similar to a physical Network Interface Card and has the ability to connect to a virtual switch and be assigned an IP address, default gateway, and subnet mask. Virtual network is all about creating an isolated network virtually. IP address is a 32 bit address which is used to give a unique identity to a VM in a network. We will focus on the concepts of bridging, default gateway, and Netmask in the next slide.

2.13 Bridging Default Gateway and Netmask

As the name Bridging suggests, this option “bridges” the virtual network to the physical network. This means that the virtual machine will appear to the network as an identifiable separate machine in the physical network. It will even ask the local DHCP server for its IP address and will appear in the DHCP leases of that DHCP server as a separate machine with a unique Media Access Control or MAC address. This connection will allow the virtual machine to offer resources to the network. For example, it can host a file server, a web server, or any sort of server that is needed. Multiple VMs can reside in a host system, each VM with individual responsibilities. This option is also called Auto-bridging because it will automatically detect a functional LAN card installed on the host machine. If the VMware Workstation is installed on a laptop or a mobile device, consider the “Replicate physical network connection state” under bridged network option. If selected, the IP address of the virtual machine is automatically renewed from one wired or wireless network to another. Default gateway can be a computer or a router which is responsible to perform communication to the external world or internet. Netmask represents the type of network which is assigned. Bridging is all about interconnecting two or more heterogeneous networks. We will compare image backups with file backups in the next slide.

2.14 Image Backups vs File Backups

Image backup refers to taking a backup of the entire machine in the form of a file. This is done to ensure that the same file can be used for recovering or restoring the machine back to normal. An example from the industry is the use of a software distribution called Hiren Boot which takes a backup of the entire computer system which can be easily restored using the same backup. File backup refers to taking a backup of a specific file in the system. This enables recovery at the file level and not the system level. An example is the use of auto-recovery tools to take a backup of a specific file. In the next slide, we will discuss guest tools in detail.

2.15 Guest Tools

Guest Tools are like the drivers and management tool for the virtual machine to perform proper functioning and synchronization of hardware devices with the VM. Guest tools are installed once the operating system is installed on the VM. It improves the functionality of the VM. Guest tools can also act as management tools that will help the VM to synchronize with the orchestration tools used by the administrator of the company to have a centralized architecture. In the next slide, we will discuss virtual disk in detail.

2.16 Virtual Disk

Virtual Disk is the component which provides storage space to the virtual machine. It is like virtual hard disk which can be used for installing the operating system and performing activities. Based on the hypervisor type and make of the virtual disk, there are different features like dynamic increasing of the space, and thick and thin provisioning. Thick provisioning refers to the fact that the amount of space requested for the VM will be blocked completely irrespective of the usage by the VM. Thin provisioning refers to the fact of dynamically allocating the space based on the usage by the VM. Thin provisioning treats the size of the disk during the creation of the VM as an upper limit but does not allocate the space at start. Virtual Disks can have either SCSI or ATA ID. The user has the privilege to choose the type of disk to be assigned to the VM. The average limit to include virtual disk varies from hypervisor to hypervisor. In VMware ESXi, the SCSI disk can be up to 60 disks and IDE disk can be up to 4 disks. In the following slide, we will focus on virtual switches.

2.17 Virtual Switches

Virtual Switches are used to connect the VM to the network so that the VM can communicate with other network devices. A virtual switch is similar to a physical switch which makes it possible to connect other network devices together. It controls how the network traffic flows between the virtual machines and the host computer as well as how network traffic flows between the virtual machine and other network devices in the organization. A virtual switch can provide some of the same security features as a physical switch, including policy enforcement, isolation, traffic shaping, and simplified troubleshooting. It can support VLANs and is compatible with standard VLAN implementations. However, a virtual switch cannot be attached to another virtual switch; instead, more ports can be added to the existing switch. Next, we will discuss virtual storage area network.

2.18 Virtual Storage Area Network

Organizations have the ability to use a Virtual Storage Area Network (VSAN), which can consolidate separate physical SAN fabrics into a single larger fabric, allowing for easier management while maintaining security. A VSAN allows for identical Fibre Channel IDs to be used at the same time within different VSANs. VSANs (read as: V-SAN) assign user-specified IDs called assign IDs that are used to identify the VSAN. The following slide focuses on establishing requirements.

2.19 Establishing Requirements

There are some establishing requirements before performing migration of a virtual resource. Most important considerations are the computer resources: the CPU, memory, disk I/O, and storage requirements. When looking at migrating physical servers to a virtual environment, it is important for an organization to decide which servers to migrate first and know the potential servers for migration. Another consideration to make when determining if a physical server is a good candidate for virtualization is the status of the file system. When converting a physical server to a virtual server, only the necessary data from the physical server is copied to the virtual server as part of the P2V process. It is important to examine the hard drive of the physical server before performing a migration. It is also important to remove all unrequired files and data. In the following slide, we will focus on migration processes.

2.20 Migration Processes

With an online migration the physical computer or source computer remains running and operational during the migration. An offline migration provides for a more reliable transition since the source computer is not being utilized. Virtual to Virtual or V2V is the process of migrating an operating system, applications, and data, but instead of migrating them from a physical server, one is migrating them from a virtual server. Virtual to Physical (V2P) is all about converting the existing VM into a physical instance. The next thing to be considered is scheduling the maintenance. This is generally done to ensure that the company production will not get impacted. The reason to perform migration is to ensure more performance and optimum resource utilization.

2.21 Advantages of Virtualization in Cloud

There are multiple benefits when implementing virtualization in cloud. Some of them are: Shared resources Elasticity Network and application isolation Infrastructure consolidation and Virtual data center creation Shared resources give a cloud service provider the ability to distribute resources as per need to the cloud consumer. This improves efficiency and reduces costs for an organization. Elastic computing allows the computer resources to vary dynamically to meet a variable workload of the end customer. This ensures that the resources for the customer are scalable, available, portable, and can also pool resources from the main server. Cloud computing can also help to create network and application isolation with respect to the user and its subscription. Virtualization allows an organization to consolidate its servers and infrastructure which allows a service provider to implement multiple infrastructures for multiple organizations. A virtual data center offers data center infrastructure as a service, and is the same concept as a physical data center with the advantages of cloud computing mixed in. In the next slide, we will discuss virtual components used to construct cloud environment.

2.22 Virtual Components Requirement

The virtual components that are to be considered to construct the cloud are virtual network components, shared memory, Virtual CPU, and storage virtualization. Virtual network components refer to virtual NIC, virtual HBA, and virtual router. Virtual NIC is used by a VM to connect to a network. Virtual HBA is a connector to connect to LUN which is deployed by an SAN administrator. Virtual router is used to give internet connection to the virtual machine. Shared memory refers to virtual RAM, which is used by the virtual machine. Virtual CPU refers to the CPU used by the VM. We can set the number of CPUs and also their cores. Storage virtualization groups multiple network storage devices into a single storage unit that can be managed from a central console and used by a virtual machine or host computer. Storage virtualization usually occurs in a storage area network or SAN where a high-speed collection of shared storage devices can be used. This virtualization provides shared storage, clustered storage, and NPIV, that is N_Port ID virtualization which is assigned to the components of VM. In the following slide, we will discuss a scenario based on virtual resource migration.

2.23 Scenario on Virtual Resource Migration

Your administrator notices that one of the VMs hosting a server rack is consuming more CPU resources over time. As a result, the host is running near 90% CPU capacity at peak time. Which of the following is the best way to resolve this issue while minimizing downtime? What solution would you suggest? Upgrade the Server Rack with CPU resources. Migrate the virtual machine in the new host using live migration method. Migrate the virtual machine in the new host using cold migration method. In the following slide, we will understand how to best resolve this issue.

2.24 Scenario on Virtual Resource Migration(contd.)

The solution is to migrate the virtual machine in the new host using live migration. This will ensure that the availability of the server and the virtual machine is maintained, and the resources are given to the virtual machine. Let us move on to the quiz questions to check your understanding of the topics covered in this module.

2.26 Summary

Here is a quick recap of what was covered in the module: Virtualization is a technology that creates virtual version of physical hardware or instances. Hypervisor is a type of software implemented in a machine to create and manage instances. The two components of a virtual machine are the host server and the guest virtual machine. The types of virtualization as per business Service Level Agreement process are access virtualization, application virtualization, processor virtualization, storage virtualization, and network virtualization. The types of virtualization as per technical implementation process are full virtualization, paravirtualization, OS level virtualization, and hardware assisted virtualization. A proprietary hypervisor is developed and licensed for a client while open-source hypervisor is free and can be used by anyone.

2.27 Thank You

In the next module, we will focus on infrastructure essentials in detail.

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  • PMP, PMI, PMBOK, CAPM, PgMP, PfMP, ACP, PBA, RMP, SP, and OPM3 are registered marks of the Project Management Institute, Inc.

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