7 Types of Artificial Intelligence That You Should Know in 2023

The use and scope of Artificial Intelligence don’t need a formal introduction. Artificial Intelligence is no more just a buzzword; it has become a reality that is part of our everyday lives. With companies building intelligent machines for diverse applications using AI, it is revolutionizing business sectors like never before. You will learn about the various stages and categories of artificial intelligence in this article on Types Of Artificial Intelligence.

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What is Artificial Intelligence?

Artificial Intelligence is the process of building intelligent machines from vast volumes of data. Systems learn from past learning and experiences and perform human-like tasks. It enhances the speed, precision, and effectiveness of human efforts. AI uses complex algorithms and methods to build machines that can make decisions on their own. Machine Learning and Deep learning forms the core of Artificial Intelligence. 

Types Of Artificial Intelligence

AI is now being used in almost every sector of business:

  • Transportation
  • Healthcare
  • Banking
  • Retail
  • Entertainment
  • E-Commerce

Now that you know what AI really is, let’s look at what are the different types of artificial intelligence?

Types of Artificial Intelligence

Artificial Intelligence can be divided based on capabilities and functionalities.

There are three types of Artificial Intelligence-based on capabilities - 

  • Narrow AI
  • General AI
  • Super AI

Under functionalities, we have four types of Artificial Intelligence - 

  • Reactive Machines
  • Limited Theory
  • Theory of Mind
  • Self-awareness

Types of AI

First, we will look at the different types of Artificial Intelligence-based on Capabilities.

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Artificial Intelligence Based on Capabilities

What is Narrow AI?

Narrow AI, also called as Weak AI, focuses on one narrow task and cannot perform beyond its limitations. It targets a single subset of cognitive abilities and advances in that spectrum. Narrow AI applications are becoming increasingly common in our day-to-day lives as machine learning and deep learning methods continue to develop. 

Types Of Artificial Intelligence

  • Apple Siri is an example of a Narrow AI that operates with a limited pre-defined range of functions. Siri often has problems with tasks outside its breadth of abilities. 
  • IBM Watson supercomputer is another example of a Narrow AI. It applies cognitive computing, machine learning, and natural language processing to process information and answers your queries. IBM Watson once out-performed human contestant Ken Jennings to become the champion on the popular game show, Jeopardy!. 
  • Other examples of Narrow AI include google translate, image recognition software, recommendation systems, spam filtering, and Google’s page-ranking algorithm.

What is General AI?

General AI, also known as strong AI, can understand and learn any intellectual task that a human being can. It allows a machine to apply knowledge and skills in different contexts. AI researchers have not been able to achieve strong AI so far. They would need to find a method to make machines conscious, programming a full cognitive ability set. General AI has received a $1 billion investment from Microsoft through OpenAI. 

  • Fujitsu has built the K computer, which is one of the fastest supercomputers in the world. It is one of the significant attempts at achieving strong AI. It took nearly 40 minutes to simulate a single second of neural activity. Hence, it is difficult to determine whether strong AI will be achieved shortly.

Types Of Artificial Intelligence

  • Tianhe-2 is a supercomputer that was developed by the China's National University of Defense Technology. It holds the record for cps (calculations per second) at 33.86 petaflops (quadrillions of cps). Although that sounds exciting, the human brain is estimated to be capable of one exaflop, i.e., a billion cps.

Types Of Artificial Intelligence

What is a Super AI?

Super AI surpasses human intelligence and can perform any task better than a human. The concept of artificial superintelligence sees AI evolved to be so akin to human sentiments and experiences that it doesn't merely understand them; it also evokes emotions, needs, beliefs, and desires of its own. Its existence is still hypothetical. Some of the critical characteristics of super AI include thinking, solving puzzles, making judgments, and decisions on its own.

Now, we will look at the different types of Artificial Intelligence-based on Functionalities.

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Artificial Intelligence Based on Functionalities

To describe the various types of Artificial Intelligence systems, it is necessary to categorize them based on their functions.

What is a Reactive Machine?

A reactive machine is the primary form of artificial intelligence that does not store memories or use past experiences to determine future actions. It works only with present data. They perceive the world and react to it. Reactive machines are provided with specific tasks, and they don't have capabilities beyond those tasks.

IBM’s Deep Blue that defeated chess grandmaster Garry Kasparov is a reactive machine that sees the chessboard pieces and reacts to them. Deep Blue cannot refer to any of its prior experiences or improve with practice. It can identify the pieces on a chessboard and know how each moves. Deep Blue can make predictions about what moves might be next for it and its opponent. It ignores everything before the present moment and looks at the chessboard pieces as it stands right now and chooses from possible next moves.


Source: Britannica

What is Limited Memory?

Limited Memory AI trains from past data to make decisions. The memory of such systems is short-lived. They can use this past data for a specific period of time, but they cannot add it to a library of their experiences. This kind of technology is used in self-driving vehicles.

Types Of Artificial Intelligence SelfDrivingCar

  • Limited Memory AI observes how other vehicles are moving around them, at present, and as time passes. 
  • This ongoing, collected data gets added to the AI machine's static data, such as lane markers and traffic lights. 
  • They are included when the vehicle decides when to change lanes, avoid cutting off another driver, or hit a nearby vehicle. 

Mitsubishi Electric has been figuring out how to improve such technology for applications like self-driving cars.

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What is the Theory of Mind?

Theory of mind AI represents an advanced class of technology and exists only as a concept. Such a kind of AI requires a thorough understanding that the people and things within an environment can alter feelings and behaviors. It should understand people's emotions, sentiments, and thoughts. Even though many improvements are there in this field, this kind of AI is not fully complete yet.

  • One real-world example of the theory of mind AI is Kismet. Kismet is a robot head made in the late 90s by a Massachusetts Institute of Technology researcher. Kismet can mimic human emotions and recognize them. Both abilities are key advancements in theory of mind AI, but Kismet can’t follow gazes or convey attention to humans.

Types Of Artificial Intelligence Kismet

  • Sophia from Hanson Robotics is another example where the theory of mind AI was implemented. Cameras present in Sophia's eyes, combined with computer algorithms, allow her to see. She can sustain eye contact, recognize individuals, and follow faces.

Types Of Artificial Intelligence Sophia

What is Self Awareness?

Self-awareness AI only exists hypothetically. Such systems understand their internal traits, states, and conditions and perceive human emotions. These machines will be smarter than the human mind. This type of AI will not only be able to understand and evoke emotions in those it interacts with, but also have emotions, needs, and beliefs of its own.

Branches of Artificial Intelligence

AI research has successfully developed effective techniques for solving a wide range of problems, from game playing to medical diagnosis.

There are many branches of AI, each with its focus and set of techniques. Some of the essential branches of AI include:

  • Machine learning: It deals with developing algorithms that can learn from data. ML algorithms are used in various applications, including image recognition, spam filtering, and natural language processing.
  • Deep learning: It is a branch of machine learning that harnesses artificial neural networks to acquire knowledge from data. Deep learning algorithms effectively solve various problems, including NLP, image recognition and speech recognition.
  • Natural language processing: It deals with the interaction between computers and human language. NLP techniques are used to understand and process human language and in various applications, including machine translation, speech recognition, and text analysis.
  • Robotics: It is a field of engineering that deals with robot design, construction, and operation. Robots can perform tasks automatically in various industries, including manufacturing, healthcare, and transportation.
  • Expert systems: They are computer programs designed to mimic human experts' reasoning and decision-making abilities. Expert systems are used in various applications, including medical diagnosis, financial planning, and customer service.
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We might be far from creating machines that can solve all the issues and are self-aware. But, we should focus our efforts toward understanding how a machine can train and learn on its own and possess the ability to base decisions on past experiences.

I hope this article helped you to understand the different types of artificial intelligence. If you are looking to start your career in Artificial Intelligent and Machine Learning, then check out Simplilearn's Caltech Post Graduate Program in AI and Machine Learning

Do you have any questions regarding this article? If you have, please put in the comments section of this article on types of artificial intelligence. Our team will help you solve your queries at the earliest!


1. What is an AI model?

An AI model is a mathematical model used to make predictions or decisions. Some of the common types of AI models:

  • Linear regression
  • Logistic regression
  • Decision trees
  • Neural networks

2. What are the 2 categories of AI?

There are two main categories of AI:

  1. Weak AI: Weak AI is a type of AI that can only perform specific tasks. For example, a weak AI might be able to play chess or translate languages.
  2. Strong AI: Strong AI is a type of AI that can perform any task that a human can. It has the power to revolutionize many aspects of our lives.

3. Who is the father of AI?

The father of AI is John McCarthy. He is a computer scientist who coined the term "artificial intelligence" in 1955. McCarthy is also credited with developing the first AI programming language, Lisp.

About the Author

Avijeet BiswalAvijeet Biswal

Avijeet is a Senior Research Analyst at Simplilearn. Passionate about Data Analytics, Machine Learning, and Deep Learning, Avijeet is also interested in politics, cricket, and football.

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