Tutorial Playlist

Data Structure Tutorial

Overview

Arrays in Data Structures: A Guide With Examples

Lesson - 1

All You Need to Know About Two-Dimensional Arrays

Lesson - 2

All You Need to Know About a Linked List in a Data Structure

Lesson - 3

The Complete Guide to Implement a Singly Linked List

Lesson - 4

The Ultimate Guide to Implement a Doubly Linked List

Lesson - 5

The Fundamentals for Understanding Circular Linked List

Lesson - 6

The Ultimate Guide To Understand The Differences Between Stack And Queue

Lesson - 7

Implementing Stacks in Data Structures

Lesson - 8

Your One-Stop Solution for Stack Implementation Using Array

Lesson - 9

Your One-Stop Solution for Queue Implementation Using Array

Lesson - 10

Your One-Stop Solution to Learn Depth-First Search(DFS) Algorithm From Scratch

Lesson - 11

Your One-Stop Solution for Stack Implementation Using Linked-List

Lesson - 12

The Definitive Guide to Understand Stack vs Heap Memory Allocation

Lesson - 13

All You Need to Know About Linear Search Algorithm

Lesson - 14

All You Need to Know About Breadth-First Search Algorithm

Lesson - 15

A One-Stop Solution for Using Binary Search Trees in Data Structure

Lesson - 16

The Best Tutorial to Understand Trees in Data Structure

Lesson - 17

A Complete Guide to Implement Binary Tree in Data Structure

Lesson - 18

A Holistic Look at Using AVL Trees in Data Structures

Lesson - 19

All You Need to Know About Tree Traversal in Data Structure

Lesson - 20

The Best Guide You’ll Ever Need to Understand B-Tree in Data Structure

Lesson - 21

The Best Guide You'll Ever Need to Understand Spanning Tree in Data Structure

Lesson - 22

The Best and Easiest Way to Understand an Algorithm

Lesson - 23

Your One-Stop Solution to Understand Shell Sort Algorithm

Lesson - 24

Your One-Stop Solution to Quick Sort Algorithm

Lesson - 25

The Most Useful Guide to Learn Selection Sort Algorithm

Lesson - 26

Everything You Need to Know About Radix Sort Algorithm

Lesson - 27

Everything You Need to Know About the Counting Sort Algorithm

Lesson - 28

Everything You Need to Know About the Merge Sort Algorithm

Lesson - 29

Insertion Sort Algorithm: One-Stop Solution That Will Help You Understand Insertion Sort

Lesson - 30

Everything You Need to Know About the Bubble Sort Algorithm

Lesson - 31

The Best Guide You’ll Ever Need to Understand Bucket Sort Algorithm

Lesson - 32

Your One-Stop Solution to Understand Recursive Algorithm in Programming

Lesson - 33

The Definitive Guide to Understanding Greedy Algorithm

Lesson - 34

Your One-Stop Solution to Understand Backtracking Algorithm

Lesson - 35

The Fundamentals of the Bellman-Ford Algorithm

Lesson - 36

Your One-Stop Solution for Graphs in Data Structures

Lesson - 37

The Best Guide to Understand and Implement Solutions for Tower of Hanoi Puzzle

Lesson - 38

A Simplified and Complete Guide to Learn Space and Time Complexity

Lesson - 39

All You Need to Know About the Knapsack Problem : Your Complete Guide

Lesson - 40

The Fibonacci Series: Mathematical and Programming Interpretation

Lesson - 41

The Holistic Look at Longest Common Subsequence Problem

Lesson - 42

The Best Article to Understand What Is Dynamic Programming

Lesson - 43

A Guide to Implement Longest Increasing Subsequence Using Dynamic Programming

Lesson - 44

A Holistic Guide to Learn Stop Solution Using Dynamic Programming

Lesson - 45

One Stop Solution to All the Dynamic Programming Problems

Lesson - 46

Understanding the Fundamentals of Binomial Distribution

Lesson - 47
Everything You Need to Know About the Bubble Sort Algorithm

The bubble sort algorithm is a reliable sorting algorithm. This algorithm has a worst-case time complexity of O(n2). The bubble sort has a space complexity of O(1). The number of swaps in bubble sort equals the number of inversion pairs in the given array. When the array elements are few and the array is nearly sorted, bubble sort is effective and efficient.

What Is a Bubble Sort Algorithm?  

Bubble sort algorithm, also known as sinking sort, is the simplest sorting algorithm that runs through the list repeatedly, compares adjacent elements, and swaps them if they are out of order. 

The process of traversing the list is repeated until the list is sorted. The comparison sort algorithm is named after smaller or larger elements "bubble" at the top of the list. The following image depicts the real-time implementation of Bubble Sort.

what-is-bubble-sort-algorithm

Bubble sorting is accomplished by recursively comparing adjacent elements and sifting them in ascending or descending order.

You will now look at how the bubble sort algorithm works after you better understand what it is.

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How Does the Bubble Sort Algorithm Work?

Let's assume an array.

working-of-bubble-sort-algorithm.

Assume you’re attempting to arrange the elements in ascending order.

An array contains five elements. That means you must perform four comparisons for the most significant (greatest) element to bubble to the top of the array. 

Why do you have four comparisons?

N = The number of elements in an array

N-1 = The number of time comparisons that occur

Therefore: 5 - 1 = 4

First Pass

  • Compare the first and second elements, starting with the first index.
  • They are swapped if the first element is greater than the second.
  • Compare the second and third elements now. If they are not in the correct order, swap them.
  • The preceding procedure is repeated until it reaches the final element.

working-of-bubble-sort-algorithm1

Second Pass

  • The process is repeated for the remaining iterations.
  • The most significant element among the unsorted elements is placed at the end of each iteration.

working-of-bubble-sort-algorithm2

Third Pass

The comparison is performed up to the last unsorted element in each iteration.

working-of-bubble-sort-algorithm

Fourth Pass

When all of the unsorted elements are placed in their correct positions, the array is sorted.

working-of-bubble-sort-algorithm4.

After understanding how it works, you will now look at the algorithm and pseudocode of the bubble sort algorithm.

Algorithm and Pseudocode for Bubble Sort 

Algorithm of the Bubble Sort Algorithm

Assume the array is an n-element array. You also need to  assume that the function "switch" the values of the array elements given to it.

begin BubbleSortAlgorithm( Array )

For all the elements of the array

        if array[i] > array [i + 1]

            switch ( array[i] , array[i+!])

        end if

end for

return array

end BubbleSortAlgorithm

Pseudocode of the Bubble Sort Algorithm

Procedure bubblesortalgorithm ( array: array of items )

 size = array.count; 

for i = 0 to size -1 do:

  switch = false

    for j = 0 to size - 1 do:

       if array[j] > array{j + 1} then

            switch ( array [j] >array[j + 1] )

             switch = true

      end if

     end for

      If ( not switch ), then

       Break

      end if

    end for

end procedure bubblesortalgorithm

return array

Continuing with this tutorial, you will learn how to optimize it.

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Optimizing Bubble Sort Algorithm

If you can determine that the array is sorted, you should halt further passes. It is an improvement on the original bubble sort algorithm.

If there is no swapping in a particular pass, the array has become sorted, and you should skip the remaining passes. For this, you can use a flag variable that is set to true before each pass and is set to false when swapping occurs.

void bubbleSortAlgorithm(int *array, int ele) // ele is the number of elements in an array

{

    for(int i=0; i<ele; i++)

    {

       flag = false;

       for(int j=0; j<ele-i-1; j++)

       {

          if(array1[j]>array1[j+1])

          {

            flag = true;

             int x = array1[j+1];

             array1[j+1] = array1[j];

             array1[j] = x;

          }

       }

// Swapping is not required as array is already sorted

      if(!flag){

         return;

      }

   }

}

Following the optimization part, you will look at some variations of the bubble sort.

Variations of Bubble Sort Algorithm

The following are some variations of the bubble sort:

  • For message passing systems, odd-even sort is a parallel version of bubble sort.
  • Passes can be made from right to left as well as left to right. This is more efficient for lists that include unsorted items at the end.
  • Cocktail shaker sorting alternates between left and right passes.

After looking at variations of the bubble sort, you will now look at the complexity of the bubble sort algorithm.

The Complexity of the Bubble Sort Algorithm

The Time Complexity of the Bubble Sort Algorithm

  • Bubble sort employs two loops: an inner loop and an outer loop.
  • The inner loop performs O(n) comparisons deterministically.

Worst Case

  • In the worst-case scenario, the outer loop runs O(n) times.
  • As a result, the worst-case time complexity of bubble sort is O(n x n) = O(n x n) (n2).

Best Case

  • In the best-case scenario, the array is already sorted, but just in case, bubble sort performs O(n) comparisons.
  • As a result, the time complexity of bubble sort in the best-case scenario is O(n).

Average Case

  • Bubble sort may require (n/2) passes and O(n) comparisons for each pass in the average case.
  • As a result, the average case time complexity of bubble sort is O(n/2 x n) = O(n/2 x n) = O(n/2 x n) = O(n/2 x n) = O (n2).

The Space Complexity of the Bubble Sort Algorithm

  • Bubble sort requires only a fixed amount of extra space for the flag, i, and size variables.
  • As a result, the space complexity of bubble sort is O. (1).
  • It is an in-place sorting algorithm, which modifies the original array's elements to sort the given array.

In this tutorial, you will see some of the benefits and drawbacks of the bubble sort.

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Advantages of Bubble Sort Algorithm

  • Besides the memory that the array or list occupies, the bubble sort requires very little memory.
  • The bubble sort is made up of only a few lines of code. 
  • With a best-case running time complexity of O(n), the bubble sort is helpful in determining whether or not a list is sorted. Other sorting methods frequently cycle through their entire sorting sequence, taking O(n2) or O(n log n) time to complete.
  • The same is true for data sets with only a few items that must be swapped a few times.

Now, you will learn some of the drawbacks.

Disadvantages of Bubble Sort Algorithm

  • The main disadvantage is the amount of time it takes. It is highly inefficient for large data sets, with a running time of O(n2).
  • Furthermore, the presence of turtles can significantly slow the sort.

This tutorial will conclude with a code implementation of the bubble sort.

Code Implementation of Bubble Sort Algorithm

#include<stdio.h>

void BucketSortAlgo(int arr[], int num) {

int i, j;

int array1[num];

for (i=0; i < num; i++) {

array1[i] = 0;

}

for (i=0; i < num; i++) {

(array1[arr[i]])++;

}

for (i=0,j=0; i < num; i++) {

for (; array1[i]>0;(array1[i])--) {

arr[j++] = i;

}

}

}

int main() {

int array[100];

int num;

int i;

printf("Enter the number of elements : ");

scanf("%d",&num);

printf("Enter the %d elements to be sorted:\n",num);

for (i = 0; i < num; i++ ) {

scanf("%d",&array[i]);

}

printf("\nThe array before sorting : \n");

for (i = 0;i < num;i++) {

printf("%d ", array[i]);

}

printf("\nThe array after sorting : \n");

BucketSortAlgo(array, num);

for (i = 0;i < num;i++) {

printf("%d ", array[i]);

}

printf("\n");

return 0;

}

Output 

output-of-bubble-sort-algorithm-code

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Next Steps

In this tutorial, you learned everything there is to know about the bubble sort algorithm, including how to implement it and how to use it.

The next topic will be the Binary Search Algorithm, and you will look at how to implement it. If you want to learn more about data structures and programming languages, enrol in Simplilearn’s Post Graduate Program in Full Stack Web Development in collaboration with Caltech CTME. This is a comprehensive program designed to get you the right skills needed to be a successful Full Stack Developer today.

Please leave any questions about the "Bubble Sort Algorithm" tutorial in the comments section below. We will gladly help you resolve your issues as soon as possible.

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About the Author

Soni UpadhyaySoni Upadhyay

Soni Upadhyay is with Simplilearn's Research Analysis Team. She's a Computer Science and Engineering graduate. Programming languages are her area of expertise. She has a brilliant knowledge of C, C++, and Java Programming languages.

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