Most Commonly Asked Logical Reasoning Questions in an Aptitude Test

The aptitude exam is the first step in every placement process. And it's no surprise that a majority of students are weeded out in this round itself. It makes no difference how strong your technical knowledge and communication skills are if you don't make it through the aptitude rounds. Logical reasoning is an important component of these aptitude exams, accounting for over 33% of the total score. So, in this logical reasoning questions tutorial, you will look into the most commonly asked sections of logical reasoning.

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What Is Logical Reasoning?

Logical reasoning comprises aptitude problems that need a logical level of examination to arrive at the right answer. Simply put, logical reasoning is the use of logic and common sense to solve problems. The section on logical reasoning is segregated into two parts: verbal reasoning and non-verbal reasoning. The problems expressed in the textual context are considered verbal reasoning problems. Candidates must read and comprehend the offered text to be able to choose the right alternative. 

In non-verbal reasoning problems, it will provide you with the concept in the form of numbers, figures, or diagrams. Moving forward in this logical reasoning questions tutorial, you will explore a few topics that contribute to maximum questions in the aptitude tests. 

Why an Aptitude Test?

The purpose of an aptitude test is to determine an individual's propensity for success in a particular activity. Generally, every individual is assumed to have inherent strengths and weaknesses and have a natural tendency to succeed or fail in specific areas according to their innate qualities in aptitude tests.

The logical reasoning questions can be both verbal and non-verbal: 

In verbal logical reasoning questions, the concepts and problems are often expressed in words. Candidates must read and understand the given text or paragraph and select the right answer based on the information provided.

In non-verbal logical reasoning questions, an image, diagram, or figure represents a concept or problem and requires candidates to understand it before choosing the correct answer.

1. Verbal Classification

Generally there will be four options available for you to choose from. All the given options will be related to each other in some way or the other except one. Particularly, you can define this section as three words will be given from the same classification and you need to choose the one which doesn’t belong to that group. 

Choose the word which is different from the rest.

  1. Chicken
  2. Snake
  3. Swan
  4. Crocodile
  5. Frog

Answer: Option A

Explanation: All except Chicken can live in water.

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2. Analogies

The concept of analogy refers to the process of finding a common relation between two ideas. It is possible to infer new information about another situation when there is such a common system.

Which alternative will replace the question mark.

Cup: Lip:: Bird:?

  1. Bush
  2. Grass
  3. Forest
  4. Beak

Answer: Option D

Explanation: To drink something with the help of lips, a Cup is used. Similarly, birds collect grass with the help of beaks to make their nest.

3. Matching Definitions

Reasoning questions of this type consist of a definition followed by four options. The option you choose should be a perfect illustration of the given definition.

Breach of an apartment lease means the tenant living there outlaws the landlord and is legally bound by a document that is signed by both parties. Which of the following can be said to violate the Apartment lease?

  1. John informs his landlord about not renewing his lease agreement which is about to expire next month, as he is planning to shift to another city. 
  2. Sita failed to pay the last 4 months' rent, which she agreed to, in writing with the landlord when she moved into the apartment a year ago. .
  3. Jacob informs the landlord about the discomfort he is facing in the apartment, through WhatsApp messaging. He has already agreed to rent the place for two years. 
  4. Daniel calls her attorney to seek legal advice, as her landlord is neglecting his responsibility towards the building she rents the apartment. 

Answer: Option B

Explanation: Sita signed a legally binding document that requires her to pay a monthly rent for her apartment and she has failed to do this for the last 4 months. Therefore, she has violated her apartment lease.

4. Verbal Reasoning

The purpose of this type of reasoning is to test a candidate's verbal and knowledge skills. You are usually given a passage of text followed by one or more statements in a verbal reasoning test.

5. Logical Games

Solving problems using logic and common sense is the purpose of logical games in the aptitude test. There are two sections on logical reasoning: verbal reasoning and non-verbal reasoning.

Arrange the words given below in a meaningful sequence.

  1. Police  2. Punishment  3. Crime  4. Judge  5. Judgment
  1. 3, 1, 2, 4, 5
  2. 1, 2, 4, 3, 5
  3. 5, 4, 3, 2, 1
  4. 3, 1, 4, 5, 2

Answer: Option D

Explanation: The correct order is :

Crime Police Judge Judgment  Punishment

  3        1        4           5            2

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6. Statement and Assumption / Argument

In this type of aptitude question, first a general statement is given as the question followed by a few assumptions made on the basis of the statement. Hence, the candidates need to pick the assumption which will be most appropriately and logically suitable for the given statement.

Statement: French language learning should be started in school.


  1. French language is easy to learn
  2. Learning French helps in getting a job
  1.  Assumption I is implied 
  2. Assumption II is implied 
  3. Either I or II is implied
  4. Neither I or II is implied
  5. Both the assumptions are implied 

Answer: Option A

Explanation: French language can only be started in school if it is easy to learn, so assumption I is implied, but the second assumption shows no link between jobs and learning French so it is not implied. 

7. Statement and Conclusion

In this particular section of the aptitude test, any statement will be given that will be followed by a set of random conclusions. You will have to choose the suitable conclusion that logically follows the given statement the most.

Statements: The T.V. programs and telecasts especially for women are packed with a variety of recipes and household hints. A major portion of magazines for women also contains the items mentioned above.


  1. Women are not interested in other things.
  2. An average woman's primary interest lies in the home and especially in the kitchen.
  1. The only conclusion I follow
  2. Only conclusion II follows
  3. Either I or II follows
  4. Neither I nor II follows

Both I and II follow

Answer: Option B

Explanation: Nothing about the rest of the things is mentioned in the statement. So, I do not follow, Also, since it is mentioned that programs and magazines for women are stuffed with kitchen recipes and other household hints, it means that women have a special interest in these areas. So, II follows.

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8. Cause and Effect Questions

In this section, there will be two statements with numbers 1 and 2. You will be able to find a cause-and-effect relationship between both the given statements. Sometimes it is possible that both statements can have the same cause or independent cause. Or even a single statement can have independent causes without any relationship. Read both statements carefully and decide which of the following answer choices correctly illustrates the relationship between these two statements.


I. The importance of meditation is being realized by all sections of society.

II. There is an increasing awareness about mental and physical health in society, particularly among middle-aged groups of people.

  1. Statement II is the common effect and statement I is the independent cause
  2. Statement I is the effect and statement II is its cause.
  3. Statements I and II are different independent causes.
  4. Statements I and II are effects of independent causes.
  5. Statements I and II are effects of a common and independent cause.

Answer: Option B

Explanation: As the awareness about health in society is increasing particularly among a middle-aged group of people, the importance of meditation is being realized by all sections of society.

9. Logical Deduction

The process of solving or analyzing one or more statements to finally reach a logical conclusion is logical deduction. This goes in the same direction as that of the conditionals and links premises with proper conclusions.

Statements: All mangoes are golden in color. No golden-colored things are cheap.


  1. All mangoes are cheap.
  2. Golden-colored mangoes are not cheap.
  1. The only conclusion I follow
  2. Only conclusion II follows
  3. Either I or II follows
  4. Neither I nor II follows
  5. Both I and II follow

Answer: Option B

Explanation: Clearly, the conclusion must be universally negative and should not contain the middle term. So, it follows that 'No mango is cheap'. So if the mangoes are golden in color we may say golden-colored mangoes instead of just mangoes '. Thus, II follows.

10. Letter and Symbol Series

Letter and Symbol Series are generally framed as a sequential order of letters, numbers, or both, arranged in such a way that every term within the series is analyzed and obtained according to some specific ground rules. Those rules can either be based on mathematical operations, placement of any letters in alphabetical order, etc.

FBG, GBF, HBI, IBH, ____?

  1. HBL
  2. HBK
  3. JBK
  4. JBI

Answer: Option C 

Explanation:  Consider the second letter of each option is static. Concentrating on the first and third letters is important. The entire series is in the reverse order of letters in alphabetical order. The first letter is in order F, G, H, I, J.  The second and the fourth part are in the reverse order of the third and first letters. Hence, the missing part is the new letter. 

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11. Logical Problems

Every question in this section has given specific words with a particular sequence that has a definite meaning. Hence, we need to find a correct sequence from the given options. 

Arrange the words below in their appropriate sequence.

  1. Morning  2. facewash  3. brush 4. Take bath  5. exercise
  1. 5, 1, 2, 4, 3
  2. 4, 2, 1, 5, 3
  3. 1, 3, 2, 4, 5
  4. 1, 2, 3, 5, 4

Answer: Option D


The correct order is:

Morning   Facewash   Brush   Exercise   Take bath

   1                2             3         5            4

12. Analyzing Arguments

This is a very important part of critical thinking as we can give reasons to support or criticize any given position. We learn how to construct and evaluate arguments for developing this particular task.

Old generation people were born between 1965 and 1981. If we talk about employees, This generation faces more challenges as they can do the tasks independently. Making this generation the Entrepreneurial generation of all time. 

The statement which suits the best Paragraph of the old Generation is

  1. They work harder than any other recent generation 
  2. They have this natural tendency of being self-employed and self-workers
  3. Interested in making an impact in history
  4. Works in the field of jobs that is always high in risks
  5. Challenges the attitude of their boss and co-employees. 

Answer: Option B

Explanation:  Statement B as you can find the support for this answer in the second sentence of the paragraph. This old generation of people tends to work independently, meaning they are self-employed and hardworking. 

13. The Course of Action

In the Course of Action section in the aptitude test, a required step is taken to counter any given situation, problem, or circumstance, so that either it may give a complete solution to the problem or it may even reduce the complexity of the problem and improve the current situation.

Statement:  Swetha has incurred accumulated losses of Rs.153 crore since it was launched in 1981. 

Courses of Action:

  1. Swetha should increase ticket fares and reduce the expenditure on unnecessary waste.
  2. Swetha should receive Rs 300 crore to make it economically operational.
  1. Only I follow
  2. Only II follows
  3. Either I or II follows
  4. Neither I nor II follows
  5. Both I and II follow

Answer: Option A

Explanation:  In order to grow economically, Swetha should gradually reduce losses and increase the income in her business. 

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14. Theme Detection

Regarding the theme detection part in aptitude, the passage can be given on any aspect. This passage will be then followed by a series of questions which will be followed by some options to select from. Our goal is to carefully read and reread the passage and answer the questions. 

The fate of Indian ladies is very sumptuous and therefore allowed to trust that they will legitimize their capacities by accommodating to any given situation. Ram was correct when he pronounced that by instructing ladies we can teach the entire country. Since it is believed that a nation can never grow without the dedication of half of its population.

The part best backings the explanation that

  1. India is endeavoring hard for the liberation of ladies.
  2. all ladies ought to be educated.
  3. a country can advance just whenever ladies are offered equivalent freedoms and chances as men.
  4. ladies should be granted full opportunity to express their value and add to the advancement of the country.

Answer: Option D

15. Coding and Decoding Questions

Coding is a technique used to encrypt words or numbers in specific patterns using particular rules and regulations. In more technical terms, it is also referred to as encryption. And it is widely used across all the messaging platforms to protect the context that users are communicating. The logic these encryptions follow is known as its key, and determining this key is an imperative task in these coding problems.

Now, have a look at a problem that deals with coding.

Problem Statement: In a certain language, KINEMARTOPHOBIA is written as KNIEAMROTPOHBAI, then how HILLARIOUS will be written in the same language?

Solution: In every triad, the second and third characters are interchanging their positions. And if you abide by the same logic, hilarious will get converted into:


Moving forward, you will discover decoding.

Decoding is the process of decrypting the patterns into original forms. In order to achieve decoding, you will require the logic of encoding. So, in these types of problems, you will have to figure out the key or logic of encoding. Let’s have a look at a problem based on decoding.

Problem Statement: In a certain language, BOOK is written as 4300, MATE is written as 3900. Then 1600 will represent which word out of given alternatives?

  1. GOOD
  2. WOOD
  3. CRAB
  4. CAGE

Solution: Here, the words are encoded into a numeric format, so there must be some sort of relationship between encoded patterns and alphabetical numbering. Consider BOOK as an example, where 43 is the summation value for alphabetical numbering of characters B, O, and K.


Similarly, for the word MATE-


From both these examples, you can say that there is no logic behind two trailing zeros. This means the right alternative should have 16 as the character summation value. And CAGE is the option with that possibility.

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16. Seating Arrangement Questions

These logical reasoning questions involve arranging the persons or objects according to the conditions given in the question. To be able to answer, you will need to comprehend the sitting order, direction: is the individual facing inwardly or outwards, and so on. The questions based on a linear seating arrangement are easier to answer than questions based on complicated seating configurations such as circular, triangular, or polygonal seating arrangements. Now, have a look at seating arrangement problems:

Linear Arrangement Problem: A, P, R, X, S, and Z are sitting in a row. S and Z are in the center. A and P are at the ends. R is sitting to the left of A. Who is to the right of S?

Solution: By drawing an inference from the statements given above, you can arrange the six persons in a straight line.


Looking at this arrangement, you can point out that Z is the right answer.

Circular Arrangement Problem: P, Q, R, S, T, U, and V are sitting around a circular table facing the center. 

  • R is next to the left of U, and V is second to the left of R.
  • P is sitting third to the left of T.
  • Q is between S and T.

Which of the following pairs has the first person sitting to the immediate left of the second person?

  1. QT
  2. RP
  3. SV
  4. VS

Solution: You can arrange the given objects in a circular arrangement by following the conditions given in a problem statement. To do that, you must first visualize consecutive left and right positions for 4, 6, and 8 object circular combinations. Here’s an example of a circular arrangement with four positions.


Here’s the arrangement of seven persons in a circular shape.


By looking at this circular representation, you can say that SV is the right alternative since S is available at the left position of V. Moving forward, in this logical reasoning questions tutorial, you will discover the section of series completion.

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17. Series Completion Questions

In this section, the candidate is entrusted with recognizing a pattern in a given set of numbers or letters. Following that, they must either choose an option that implements the same logic in a series or discover the phrase that disrupts the logic of sequence. In the series completion questions, you will encounter three sorts of sequences:  alphanumeric, alphabetic, and numeric. Now, discover logical reasoning questions based on these three sequences. 

Numeric Series Problem: Look at this series: 8, 6, 9, 23, 87,... What number should come next?

  1. 126
  2. 224
  3. 324
  4. 429

Solution: The logic that this series follows is represented in the box below:

this type


Alphabetical Series Problem: Look at this series: WFB, TGD, QHG,? And find the right alternative to replace the question mark (?).

  1. NIJ
  2. NIK
  3. NJK
  4. PJK

Solution: Usually, the logic of encoding resides in alphabetical sequencing for this type of series completion problem. The first character for the next term will be:


The middle character follows the pattern:


The last character for the next term in sequence will be:


Thus, the answer to this question is option 2- NIK.

Alphanumeric Sequence Problem: Find the next term in the alphanumeric series: Z1A, X2D, V6G, T21J, R88M, P445P, ?

  1. N2676P
  2. N2676S
  3. T2670N
  4. T2676S

Solution: Alphanumeric sequences contains both numerical and alphabetical logic. This particular sequence can be converted into three pieces such as:


The first letter of the next term will be:


The last letter of the next term in this sequence can be figured out by looking at the last letter column.


The middle numeric part follows the logic as shown in the illustration below:


Next, you will discover the section of direction sense in logical reasoning questions.

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18. Direction Sense Questions

Direction sense questions often include a person moving in a sequence of directions that include multiple turns. These logical reasoning questions are meant to assess the candidate's ability to perceive direction using pen and paper. In these types of questions, typically, data about a person traveling in different directions are provided, and finally, you have to calculate either the total distance traveled by the person or the direction of the person from his initial position.

Problem Statement: From his house, Lokesh went 15 km to the North. Then he turned to his left and covered 10 km. Then he turned south and covered 5 km. Finally, turning to his left, he covered 10 km. In which direction is he from his house?

Solution: Drawing the path traveled by a person is the ideal way to formulate an answer to this type of question. To begin, you must grasp how to express eight directions (4 main + 4 cardinals) on paper. The diagram given below will provide you with the schematic of direction representation.


By following each statement, you must plot the path that Lokesh covers.


Next, in this logical reasoning questions tutorial, you will discover the section of blood relationship questions.

19. Blood Relationship Questions

The questions asked in the blood relation section have taken a little change throughout the years. Initially, these logical reasoning questions were less complicated and more statement or dialogue-based, but as competition has expanded, so has the range of questions asked. Blood relationship questions are now available in several formats, comprising jumbled descriptions, relational puzzles, and coded relations. Now, look at logical reasoning questions based on blood relations.

Problem Statement: "He is the son of the only son of my grandfather," Lauren says, pointing to a photograph. How is the man in the photograph related to Lauren?

Solution: The man in the photograph is the son of the only son of Lauren's grandfather, i.e., the man is the son of Lauren's father. Hence, the man is the brother of Lauren.

20. Clock Based Questions

The standard clock is of circular shape, and it is divided into 12 different divisions. The angle between subsequent divisions is calculated by dividing the total clock angle of 360° by the number of divisions, which is 12.


∴ Angle between two consecutive divisions = 360/12 = 30°

And if you observe further, each division is further divided into 5 parts representing 1 minute each. And you know that angle between each division is 30 degrees. So, if you divide that by 5, you will get the angle covered by a minute hand in a single minute.

Angle Covered by Minute Hand in One Minute = 30/5 =6°

In one hour, hour hand covers the angle of 30°. From this, you can say that the angle covered by the hour hand in a minute will be 30°60=12°

Also, you are aware that both the minute hand and hour hand always move in the same direction. Hence, you can calculate the relative angular displacement using angle-covered equations. 

Relative angular Displacement in One Minute = 6-1/2=11/2

Also, if you multiply the relative angular displacement value per minute by 60, you will get relative angular displacement per hour.

Relative angular Displacement in One Hour =112 30=330° 

Any angle more than 180 degrees is called Reflex Angle. And while solving clock questions, you must try to refrain from them. So, you will convert this reflex angle by subtracting it from 360. 

Relative angular Displacement in One Hour =360-330=30°

Using angular displacement per hour and per minute, you can formulate the equation for Angle Between Hands of Clock = |30(H)-112 (M)|

Where, H = hours and M = minutes.

Now, look into a sample problem to comprehend the application of this formula.

Problem Statement: Find the angle between hands of the clock when the time is 5.30.

Solution: Here, H = 5, M =30.

Angle Between Hands of Clock = |30(H)-112 (M)|

                                                                = |30(5)-112 (30)|

                                                                  = |150-165|= 15°

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21. Calendar-Based Questions

A calendar is a chart that shows the days, weeks, and months of a given year or provides seasonal information. Here, you’ll face logical reasoning questions based on leap year, odd days, a day on a particular date, etc. Let’s look into a few basic calendar concepts.

There are two types of years: ordinary and leap. An ordinary year has 365 days, whereas a leap year has 366 days. A leap year arrives after the cycle of 4 years. Also, if you divide 365 by 7, you will get 1 as the remainder, which is considered an odd day. Similarly, a leap year has two odd days.

For months, you can compute odd days by dividing the day count in a month by 7. The precomputed odd day values for months are as given below:


No. of Odd Days



February (ord/Leap)






















You also have predefined codes for days in a week to make computation easier.

Code for Day

Day of Week















On that note, look at one sample logical reasoning question based on a calendar.

Problem Statement: Find what day you will have on 20th April 2040.

Solution: To answer this question, you must break down the given date into five sections, as shown in the chart below.


The leap year section value can be calculated by dividing the ordinary year value by 4. Therefore, Leap Year =404=10.

The next step will be calculating odd day values for all five sections. For months you have already seen precomputed odd day values.

Similarly, you also have predefined odd-day values for centuries.


Odd Day Value









This quadruple is followed in a forward and backward direction in this century chart. What it means by that is for century 2100-2199, you will again have 4 as an odd day value, whereas for century 1600-1699, you will have -1 as an odd day value.

Now, compute and add odd day values for all five sections.


Here, for the ordinary year and leap year section, you have odd day values greater than 7. Hence, you will again divide those values by 7 and add remainders of that operation as new odd day values.


Finally, you will add these values and again divide that resultant value by 7 to find out the code for the day on 20th April 2040.


Friday has been assigned with day code value 5. Thus, Friday is the right answer to this question.

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In this logical reasoning questions tutorial, you learned about the most commonly asked logical reasoning questions in an aptitude test. You also discovered a few tips and tricks to answer questions based on different logical reasoning sections. The concepts that you went through are coding and decoding, seating arrangement, series completion, direction sense, blood relationships, clock, and calendar-based reasoning questions.

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If you have any questions or need clarification on any section of this logical reasoning questions tutorial, please leave them in the comments section at the bottom of this page; we will respond to them soon.

About the Author

Kartik MenonKartik Menon

Kartik is an experienced content strategist and an accomplished technology marketing specialist passionate about designing engaging user experiences with integrated marketing and communication solutions.

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