Software Terminologies

The software market is accelerating at unprecedented rates. Brimming with opportunities, it is anticipated to reach around USD 1,789.14 billion by 2032. Familiarity with software terminologies is necessary for those planning to maximize these opportunities.  Terms such as programming languages, development methodologies, networking protocols, and security measures are the foundation of modern computing systems.

Here, we bring you an exhaustive list of software development terms that help clear doubts and advance your knowledge! 

Software Terminologies


Abstraction involves hiding the complex implementation details and provides a simple interphase. It enables its users to do so without managing the complexities in this work, thus creating efficiency and readability in the software development process.


Accessibility promotes the design of digital tools and spaces that people with disabilities can use. This process encompasses the creation of interfaces, content, and functions that can be sensed, operated, and understood by a varied user population with diverse abilities.

Ajax (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML)

Ajax is the web development technique that allows one to communicate asynchronously with the web server without working on the web page. It makes it possible for dynamic content updates without having to do the entire page reload, thus improving user experience and responsiveness in web applications.

Algorithmic Complexity

In algorithmic complexity, algorithms refer to the resources required to solve a problem. It analyzes parameters such as space and time efficiency as input size increases and achieves a better understanding of a scaling property and an algorithm's execution.

Application Server

An application server is a software application that fulfills the role of a host server by creating an environment for running web applications. It deals with request processing and database access while doing security enforcement, allowing developers to focus on the application logic without bothering to be in charge of infrastructure management.

Artificial Intelligence

AI is the creation of a machine that can carry out jobs related to human thinking. It includes various methods, including machine learning (ML), natural language processing (NLP), and computer vision, making machines progress from data to knowledge, from limited skill sets to logic and problem-solving.


An assertion is a statement or expression programmers make within their code to declare how their programs should be. While execution, assertions are used for debugging purposes to find and fix problems such as unexpected situations, and thus, the program's correctness and reliability are ensured.


An asynchronous programming pattern allows the execution of tasks independently of the main program. This helps to achieve a non-blocking execution, where operations like I/O or network requests can run in parallel, improving the responsiveness and scalability of applications.


Authentication means verifying users’ or entities’ identities accessing a system. It is the process of showing what you have, such as passwords and biometric data, and matching them with the storage to grant or deny access based on the presented data.


Authentication is identifying the users or entities having the right to access the system, while authorization grants the proper level of access to those users or entities. It functions by setting up the permissions and policies that guide the user's activities and the resources they can access to ensure application data security and integrity.


Autoscaling, also known as automatic scaling, refers to a technique employed in cloud computing to dynamically alter the computational resources within a server farm, usually quantified by the active server count, in direct response to the farm's workload.


Network bandwidth is the maximum possible data transfer between two network points in a specific time. It is usually expressed in bits per second (bps) or bytes per second (Bps). 

Big Data

Big Data refers to complex data to the extent that conventional database systems cannot process it. It includes huge amounts of structured, semi-structured, and unstructured data collected from various sources.

Binary Tree

A binary tree is a specific data structure tree type where each node can have no more than two offspring, the left and right child. It is a k-ary tree where k equals 2. Defined recursively with the aid of set theory, a binary tree is described as a trio (L, S, R), in which L and R represent binary trees or an empty set, and S is a single-element set that includes the root.


Bitrate is either the digital audio or video data transmission rate or the processing, and the units are bits per second (bps). It shows how much data is processed per second and is related to the quality and accuracy of multimedia content when it is sent or played.


It is a distributed ledger technology with the mechanism of decentralization to record transaction data across a peer-to-peer network of computers in a trustworthy and unalterable environment. It is a chain of data blocks connected with cryptographic instruments, which provide transparency, integrity, and traceability in digital deals and assets management.


Boolean is one of the data types in programming with true or false values. It gets its name from the mathematician George Boole and is a critical element in logical operations and decision-making processes carried out by computer programs. In these programs, conditions are evaluated to determine the execution flow.


Bootstrapping is starting a system or application in a way that allows it to load a small program or set of instructions into the system itself. It installs the essential elements and resources necessary for developing an autonomous system, frequently about the starting procedures of a computer.


A branch is fundamentally a parallel version of a software project's codebase. The branches help developers perform different feature developments or modifications without affecting the main codebase. It allows concurrent development, experimentation, and collaboration; changes are pushed to the mainline code base upon completion and review.


A buffer is a storage space in computer memory used as a temporary place for data while inputting, processing, or outputting. It helps to resolve the issues of the differing flow rates of data among the constituents of a system, thus preserving the information, avoiding delays, and preventing data loss or clogs in the transmission or processing process.


A byte is a basic unit of storage and processing in digital information encoding, often consisting of exactly 8 bits. It is a single unit, e.g., a letter, number, or symbol, represented in binary form and acts as the building block of data representation in computer systems.


A callback, a function reference passed to another, executes upon events, enabling asynchronous and event-driven programming. This enhances code modularity and flexibility across programming styles.


CAPTCHA is a security feature that allows human users and robotic machines to validate on web pages or online platforms. It introduces challenges, such as distorted texts or image recognition, that are more challenging for machines to prevent spam and cybercriminal activities.


A charset, or character set, comprises characters and symbols coded numerically for computers to process and represent texts. It enables consistent, compatible text display across various machines and languages through a specific encoding scheme.


In object-oriented programming (OOP), a class is a blueprint or a template for creating objects, which are class instances. It spans data and behaviors, defining the properties and methods that objects of the class can have and can do, simplifying code, and making it more organized, reusable, and massive.

Cloud Storage

Cloud storage means your data resides on servers on remote sites connected to the Internet, usually a feature of third-party service providers. Its location-independent storage is offered in scalable and flexible ways, enabling users to store, manage, and retrieve data from anywhere using internet connectivity without a physical storage infrastructure.


A cluster is an assortment of Computers or servers sharing the same space and connected to achieve a common goal as a unit. Its features involve parallel computing, high availability, and fault tolerance, which ensures that the shared and coordinating resources are used to improve performance, scalability, and reliability in distributed computing environments.

Code Refactoring

Code refactoring enhances code by restructuring without changing its functionality, aiming to boost readability, maintainability, and performance. It simplifies complex code, eliminates redundancy, incorporates design patterns, and follows best practices for easier future upkeep.


Codebase is the name given to a collection of source code files and the related resources that form a software project or application. This includes the code written by the developers to figure out the software's features, functionality, and logic and further serves as the building blocks for building, testing, and deploying software products.


Compilation is a process of programming languages converting human-readable source code into machine-readable instructions or executables that computers understand. It is about source-code parsing, analyzing, and transforming into some intermediate or target language, done by a compiler/interpreter toolchain.

Concurrent Programming

Concurrency is a programming paradigm that permits multiple tasks or processes to be executed efficiently and concurrently. It is oriented towards cooperation in managing shared resources, synchronization, and coordination mechanisms required for proper interaction and control of conflicts between concurrent entities, thus increasing software systems performance and responsiveness.


A container is an isolated, lightweight, standalone application that includes all its dependencies, libraries, and configuration files to make it ready to run. It creates isolation, portability, and consistency across different computing platforms, facilitating applications' deployment, scale, and management in elastic cloud-native and microservices architectures.


A content delivery network (CDN) is a distributed network of servers outlined in various geographical locations for delivering web content to users more efficiently. It stores and delivers static data, typically JS, video, etc., from the edge servers, which are closer to the client's way, thus reducing the latency and uplifting the website performance and dependability.

Context Switching

Context switching refers to saving and restoring the state of a process or thread in an operating system that performs the multitasking operation while switching from one task to another. It saves execution information to registers, memory mappings between processes, and other execution context information to improve the transitions and switching of concurrent activities efficiently and provide good system responsiveness.

Continuous Integration

CI is a software development approach that automatically links code into a common repository and runs automated tests when new code is committed. Among its capabilities, it guarantees early detection of integration errors, maintains code quality, and facilitates teamwork.


A cookie is a small amount of data stored by a web browser on the user's device, featuring information concerning the user's interaction with a website. This is one of the most frequently used applications to maintain a session, authenticate users, and follow users' preferences for more personalized web experiences or targeted advertising.


It refers to software that can run on different operating systems or platforms without any modifications. It utilizes technologies associated with virtualization, containerization, or abstraction layers to obtain platform independence and reach a larger audience, thus helping developers simplify and streamline the software development processes.


Cryptography is the art of protecting data and communications by converting plain text into cipher text using encryption algorithms. It consists of encryption, decryption, digital signatures, and key management to safeguard the data from unauthorized access, modification, and interception, ensuring the information is secure, reliable, and authentic.

Data Binding

Data binding is a tool used for interface optimization in software development, and its application makes the link or synchronization of data sources and data presentation components. It automates the cascading of data changes from the data model to the user interface components, thus settling the data derived from users and preserving the integrity of the interface mode.

Data Mining

Collecting all useful patterns, trends, and important information from large data sets through data mining, statistical, or machine learning is called data mining. It typically involves preprocessing, exploratory data analysis, and modeling, leading to meaningful outcomes and correspondent recommendations in various areas.

Data Type

Data type is the categorical assignment of data, which refers to the type of information that a variable, object, or expression treats or expresses in a programming language. It simplifies data manipulation and ensures the program is consistent, verifiable, and correct during software development.

Data Warehouse

Given the analytic and reporting needs, the data warehouse is a centralized place where data from structured and unstructured sources is stored. It performs monitoring and collecting data from multiple systems, transforms data, and makes it look uniform to a single system of query and analysis to provide tools for making decisions and business intelligence systems.


A datagram is a unit of data that runs independently and is composed of self-sufficient units where they can be transmitted over a network such as the Internet using a data transmission method that is connectionless using protocols like the UDP (User Datagram Protocol). It also takes part in passing information such as source and destination addresses, payload data, and error-checking codes included indirectly in various kinds of network devices.


It is the process of identifying, analyzing, and correcting errors, bugs, or flaws in a system or code of software to ensure the efficient implementation of the intended functionality and performance optimization. The software's 'bugs' and errors can be identified and rectified using these approaches, including code inspection, logging, testing, and interactive debugger, thus improving the software.


Decryption converts encrypted data (ciphertext) to the original plaintext form using a decryption key or algorithm. It is the inverse of the encryption process and decrypts protected information. Decryption generally occurs in secure systems to ensure the integrity of data exchange and safe storage.


A software dependency is a relationship between two software components or modules, where one component requires another to meet its function or behavior. It specifies the execution sequence, data flow, or resource usage between its components. Thus, the system design, development, and maintenance processes are influenced by its impact.


Deployment is the procedure of delivering and running software applications or updates to a production environment where they are accessible or operable by end-users. It comprises building, testing, and running software products to deploy them onto the desired platforms, targeting compatibility, reliability, and scalability.

Design Pattern

Design Pattern is a reusable solution to the commonly encountered challenges in software design and implementation. It offers a systematic line of action, design issue-specific solutions, code reuse, maintainability, and scalability support in software architecture and development.


A destructor is a particular method or function in object-oriented programming languages; it is called automatically when the object is deallocated or goes out of scope. It does the cleanup operations, such as releasing the memory or resources that are occupied, to prevent memory leaks or resource exhaustion and ensure proper resource management tasks.


DevOps is a software development methodology that involves development (Dev) and IT operations (Ops) practices to optimize the entire software delivery lifecycle. It focuses on teamwork, automation tools, and continuous local integration and delivery (CI/CD) to fasten development cycles, increase software quality, and make deployments more effective.

Distributed System

A distributed system links independent nodes for unified computing, enhancing scalability, fault tolerance, and device performance. It distributes computational tasks, data storage, and communication over interconnected devices.


DML is a subset of SQL used to manipulate data on a relational database management system (RDBMS). It involves the implementation of statements that are commands such as INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, and SELECT, which allow users to input, edit, delete, and retrieve data from tables in database tables.


DNS is a hierarchical system that identifies domain names, for example,, and associates them with IP addresses so that devices may connect and identify themselves over the Internet. It converts human-readable domain names to numerical IP addresses, facilitating website hosting, email routing, and networking.


DOM is a programming interface that exposes a document's structural structure, like HTML or XML, as a tree-like structure of objects. It provides such abilities as dynamical access and editing of document methods and content using languages like JavaScript and improves web development by making it interactive.


DRY is the main principle of software development that avoids code duplication by transferring the reusable code to modular components or functions. It supports readability, maintainability, and efficiency by minimizing redundancy and sustaining software design consistency and implementation.

Dynamic Programming

Dynamic programming is a technique used for solving complex problems by splitting them into subproblems that are easier to solve. The process reduces the number of times you must repeat the same solution in different tasks by storing the answers in a table or cache. So, the algorithmic performance in studying the problem is improved.


E-commerce means selling and buying goods and services via the Internet or other electronic networks. It employs online trading platforms, digital payment systems, supply chain management, and marketing strategies that allow businesses and buyers to transact electronically.


Encryption is an instance of techniques used to encrypt plaintext data as ciphertext through cryptographic algorithms and keys to ensure confidentiality and integrity. It transforms the data into cipher form and can be readable only by authorized users with the decryption keys. This leads to the establishment of secure communication and data storage.


An endpoint is a special URL or network address referring to a resource or service in a distributed system or web application. It functions as the protocol that allows a client to access the services and data offered by a server or web service, helping to create and uphold communication and interaction between clients and servers in a network environment.


An enum is a data type representing a set of named constant values. It is a collection of symbolic identifiers defined by a fixed number, known as enumeration constants or enum members, representing various options, states, or categories, enhancing code readability and maintainability.

Environment Variable

Environment variables are dynamic values that can manipulate the outcomes of software or processes within a computing environment. These are used to save the configuration parameters, system paths, and other information that can be utilized by programs that run on the system.


The only time exception occurs during the normal schedule of execution in a program is when an event that disturbs execution causes it to fail. It occurs when a runtime error or an unexpected condition appears, which must be coded specially to prevent the program from breaking down.


Fetch is a popular expression used in computer science to describe obtaining data or information from a remote location or storage system. It is also linked to networking protocols like HTTP, which runs over the Internet. Thus, web browsers request websites from servers.


FIFO stands for first in, first out, and the rule means that the first element that enters the collection is also the first one that comes out. The principle of queuing is on which it works. It is similar to people standing in line to get the service, where one who came first will be served first.

File System

The system of files is the approach of computers used to organize and store the data on storage devices, like hard drives, SSDs, and flash drives. It creates a hierarchical structure for program files and directories and gives the means to access, modify, and manage data.


A firewall is a network security that may be enhanced, as it can either be a hardware device or a software application installed on a device to control network traffic based on predefined security rules. It acts as the boundary that separates the trusted internal network and untrusted external networks, denying unauthorized access to and cyber threats.

Floating Point

In programming, floating-point types denote real numbers with fractions, using bits for the significand and exponent, offering wider value ranges and decimal precision than integers, ideal for numerous calculations.


A framework is a software development tool or environment that helps developers build and deploy applications with a simple process. Among others, it is the place where developers reuse elements like components, libraries, and APIs to speed up development and achieve uniform output in each project.


FTP is the network protocol widely used for client-server model file transfers conducted over a computer network. It allows users to upload, download, and manipulate distributed files remotely through FTP client software or a web browser.


A function is a code section developed to complete certain tasks or activities in programming. It can get input parameters, do calculations or tricky work, and give results or perform an action. Functions are known as reusable and modular blocks, which are the main ingredients in software development.

Garbage Collection

The memory management technique used in programming languages is called garbage collection, which constantly monitors the memory utilized by objects and reclaims it once those objects are no longer in use. The concept identifies and removes objects that are no longer in use; thus, these leaks are prevented, and the utilization of resources is improved.


A gateway is a network device or software app medium between different networks. Gateway establishes links and allows data exchange between dissimilar networks. It performs protocol translation, security enforcement, or routing to ensure the connection between the diverse network systems.


Git is a distributed version control system widely employed in tracking code changes within the scope of software development. It enables teamwork between several developers, collaboration, revision management, and the evolution of changes. Git offers capabilities such as branching, merging, and conflict resolution, among others, to enable collaborative development software practices.

Graph Database

Graph databases belong to the NoSQL databases using graph structures for data representation and querying. It stores data as nodes, edges, and properties, making it efficient for storage and traversing a network of complex relationships among entities. Graph databases are very good for applications for which the data models have high interconnections.


GraphQL is a query language and runtime for APIs built by Facebook. It offers a client-driven data access approach that is more flexible and efficient by providing the user's requests for the specific data they need, which eliminates the over-fetched and under-fetched data requests associated with traditional REST APIs.

GUI (Graphical User Interface)

A GUI is a visual interface that allows users of electronic devices or application software to interact with the devices and software through graphical elements such as windows, icons, buttons, and menus. GUIs give a convenient and straightforward way to navigate and operate complex devices that help provide a good user experience and increase productivity.


A hash is a string or numeric value of a fixed size computed with a hash function applied to data of any size. It is a unique identifier or a fingerprint for the information that is stored and retrieved efficiently and makes comparisons among large datasets. Hash is one of the many applications of this technology in data structures, cryptography, and integrity assurance.


The heap is a memory region reserved for the dynamic memory allocation in computer programs. It can be handled either by the operating system or the runtime environment, and it allocates memory for objects or data structures whose size or lifetime is not knowable at the compile time.


Heuristics is a problem-solving approach or technique that uses simple rules and guidelines to get an approximate solution when an optimal answer is not feasible or unknown. Heuristics are typically applied in algorithms and decision-making processes to rapidly evaluate available options and make logical decisions based on limited data.

HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol)

The HTTP protocol is the application-layer layer used for data transfer and receipt between information systems over the Internet. It actualizes both the rules and the norms of interactions between web servers and clients and, this way, allows the displaying of web pages, images, videos, and other resources.


HTTPS is a revision of HTTP that includes encryption and authentication techniques to secure communication between web servers and clients. The protocols also employ SSL/TLS, which encrypts the data transmitted over the Internet, making the data less prone to unintended access by eavesdroppers, intrusions, or tampering.

IDE (Integrated Development Environment)

An IDE is a software application with all the tools and capabilities used for the development process, such as code editing, debugging, compiling, and project management. It provides an integrated development environment that helps developers to become efficient by removing hurdles and obstacles.


The immutable attribute refers to an object (or data structure) that cannot be modified after creation. The immutable objects keep their state the same throughout their lifetime, and they make sure that the expected behavior is predicted by providing predictability and thread safety in concurrent programming environments.


Inheritance is a fundamental principle behind object-oriented programming (OOP), in which a class (subclass) can acquire properties and behavior from another pre-existing class (superclass). It allows for code reuse, abstraction, and the creation of hierarchies between classes, which makes the software more modular and extendable.


In object-oriented programming, a class represents a general concept or a collection of attributes and methods, while an instance represents a specific occurrence or realization of a class. It is a unique object that is built from a class blueprint, and it has its own set of indicators as well as methods. Entities mean data or function, thus enabling the objects to be modified and interacted with inside a program.


An integer is a data type used to represent numbers without fractional parts in programming languages. It is both positive and negative in numbers and the number zero and can be used for arithmetic operations, counting, indexing, and numerical data storage.


An interface delivers a contract that enumerates a set of methods that a class must be able to perform. It helps to formulate behavior without describing the implementation details, resulting in polymorphism and abstractions in object-oriented programming. Interfaces serve as mediators and allow for coupling, extensibility, and code reuse.


An interpreter identifies and executes the instructions in the source code directly, one line at a time, without compiling machine code. It is an interpreter that translates high-level programming languages to low-level machine instructions at runtime, allowing dynamic & interactive program execution during the program execution process.

Intrusion Detection System

An Intrusion Detection System (IDS) is a security tool or software application that scans traffic on the network or what is happening inside the system, looking for suspicious activity, unauthorized access, or malicious activities. It detects and alerts administrators of security threats, thereby helping to block cyber-attacks and data breaches.

IoC (Inversion of Control)

IoC is the design concept in software engineering where control over the program's execution is inverted or moved to an external framework/container. It introduces loosely coupled, modular, and flexible design in terms of the components, and their interdependencies are handled independently.

IoT (Internet of Things)

The Internet of Communicating Things (IoT) describes a series of interconnected tools with embedded sensors, software, and other attributes. It includes smart devices such as home appliances, wearable gadgets, or industrial machines that can perform automated and remotely controlled or monitored functions.

IP Address

It is a label assigned to devices on a computer network using an internet protocol for communications. An IP address works as an identifier showing how to find devices in the network, enabling device-to-device transmission through the Internet.

JSON (JavaScript Object Notation)

It is a lightweight data interchange format used to represent structured data in human-readable and machine-readable forms. The format is commonly used for transmitting data in web applications and APIs, as well as for configuration files and data storage.

JVM (Java Virtual Machine)

JVM is a virtual machine called Java Virtual Machine that allows running Java bytecode on various platforms. At runtime, JVM converts the Java bytecode into native machine code, making it possible for Java applications to be platform-independent and run on any operating system or architecture.

Key-Value Store

It is a type of data storage system that stores data with pairs of keys and their corresponding values. By using unique keys to retrieve associated values, it offers fast and efficient access to data and is thus well-suited for applications requiring high-performance data retrieval and caching.


A kernel is the central part of an operating system, which manages all other components, such as memory allocation, file systems, hardware devices, etc. It bridges hardware resources and software applications by controlling hardware devices, process scheduling, memory allocation, and system calls.

Lambda Function

It is a small anonymous function with no name in the code. It is often used as a way to define behavior concisely and pass it as a parameter into higher-order functions or create short-term functions for short-term tasks.


Latency can be explained as the time for networked computers or systems to respond to external requests. This delay in the transmission of data over a network or system may affect the speed with which it travels from its source back to the desired destination.


It is a set of reusable functions or code modules that provide software applications with particular services or functionalities. Libraries encapsulate generic algorithms, data structures, and utilities so that developers can adopt ready-made parts to expedite programming processes and cut down on code repetition.


Linker resolves cross-references among different units, links externally declared libraries and performs address relocation that results in final executables or libraries that could be executed by other programs or linked with them.


Linux serves as the basis for various Linux distributions called Unix-like operating systems, which are widely used for servers, embedded systems, and desktops due to their stability, security, and flexibility.

Load Balancing

The process of distributing incoming network traffic across multiple servers or resources to optimize performance, enhance reliability, and prevent overload on individual components is referred to as load balancing. This ensures no server is overwhelmed, thereby improving response time and scalability of distributed systems.


Refers to the computer's internal network interface, usually with an IP address of It enables applications and services to communicate with themselves, allowing testing and development on a local machine without external connections. 


The process of recording events, messages, or activities generated by software applications or systems. It captures relevant information like errors, warnings, and user interactions in log files or centralized systems for analysis, debugging, and monitoring. 


A programming structure that repeatedly executes a set of instructions or statements until a specific condition is met or a predefined number of repetitions is reached. It allows the program to perform repetitive tasks efficiently.

Machine Learning 

ML is a field of study in artificial intelligence concerned with the development and study of statistical algorithms. These algorithms can learn from data gen, realize unseen data, and perform tasks without explicit instructions.


Malware, short for malicious software, disrupts networks by unauthorized access or harm. It encompasses viruses, worms, ransomware, and other malicious code exploiting vulnerabilities.


In programming, a method is a subroutine or characteristic associated with a class or item that plays a specific role. It encapsulates functionality within a class, taking into account code reusability, modularity, and abstraction in object-oriented programming languages.


Microservices architecture comprises independently deployable, feature-specific services communicating via protocols, enhancing software flexibility, scalability, and maintainability.


Middleware facilitates communication and integration between programs by providing essential services like messaging and data transformation, ensuring seamless system interactions.


Migration refers to the process of moving statistics, programs, or systems from one environment or platform to any other, generally with the intention of upgrading, consolidating, or modernizing infrastructure. It involves the cautious making of plans, execution, and validation to ensure an easy transition with minimum disruption to operations.


A module is a self-contained piece of software that contains related functions, data, or objects. It promotes modularity, reusability, and maintainability by organizing code into discrete components that can be easily managed, updated, and integrated into larger software systems.

MVC (Model View Controller) 

MVC is a software architecture for designing and organizing interactive applications. It separates an application into three interacting parts: model (data and business logic), view (user interface), and manager (user input handling and application logic).


A mutex (mutual exclusion) is used to control access to shared resources under concurrent system conditions. It allows only one thread to access a safe resource at a time, ensuring data integrity and consistency.


A namespace is a container that organizes and encapsulates a fixed set of associated identifiers (like variables) to avoid naming conflicts and provide logical grouping within software. It enables modular and scalable software program development by partitioning the global identifier.

Native App

A native app is a software program mainly for a particular platform or operating system using platform-particular programming languages and tools. It presents optimized performance, seamless integration with device functions, and a stronger user experience.

Network Protocol

A network protocol sets rules for data exchange on networks, specifying packet formats, sequences, and error management to ensure reliable, standardized inter-device communication.

Neural Network 

It is a computational model inspired by the structure and features of organic neural networks in the human brain. It consists of interconnected nodes (neurons) organized in layers, which process input data, learn patterns, and generate output predictions through iterative training algorithms.


NoSQL databases offer schema flexibility, horizontal scalability, and high availability for modern web apps, handling large amounts of unstructured data with flexible, scalable solutions.


In computer science and programming, "null" is used to designate a special value, which means the absence of a value and/or reference to anything. It can be expressed in the following ways: a variable or object may not have information, or it may not point to a valid memory location at the moment.


In programming, an object is an instance of a class that has data in it. Objects are the base of object-oriented programming styles, allowing working in the form of modular, reusable, and maintainable codes.

Object-Oriented Programming

Object-oriented programming [OOP] is an object-oriented paradigm that is based on the idea of objects, which represent existence in the real world and which can contain data in the form of fields and code in the form of methods.

Open Source

Open source is a kind of software that is distributed with the source code, which is freely accessible for anyone to use, change, and redistribute. In open-source projects, people are driven to work together and be part of a community.

ORM (Object-Relational Mapping)

ORM stands for Object-Relational Mapping, and it is the software designing technique that converts the data between incompatible systems by the relation mapping of the objects from the application's programming language to the relational database tables.


Overflow is a situation where a computation produces a result that is either greater or smaller than the capacity of the data type or amount of memory allocated for it, resulting in unintuitive behavior.


In software development, a package is a group of related classes, interfaces, and resources that are bundled and organized to modularize programs and achieve better modularity in applications.

Page Rank

PageRank is one of the algorithms used by search engines to rank web pages according to the number and quality of backlinks that point to a particular page.


In programming, a parameter is an expression defining a variable or value passed to a function, subroutine, or method to customize its behavior or provide input data.


A parser is a software entity or module that is responsible for analyzing and categorizing the structure of input data (like code or markup) by using a certain grammar, which is very often used in compilers, interpreters, and data processing applications.


The term "Partitioning" means the division or splitting of a large system or dataset to be formed into smaller, more manageable parts or "partitions." It is the most common method for maintaining data in the database, distributed computing, and parallel processes to attain scalability, performance, and fault tolerance.

Pattern Matching

Pattern matching is a method often applied in computer science and data analysis where patterns or sequences in a dataset are recognized. It is based on the use of search patterns that correspond to specific structural and data arrangements defined in advance.


In computing and networking, payload stands for the data or content transmitted over a communication channel, leaving out the protocol overhead or control data. It is a medium of data or information that is transferred from one system to another or between devices.

Performance Testing

Performance testing evaluates a system's responsiveness, scalability, reliability, and efficiency under various workloads, aiming to improve performance by identifying errors and optimizing resource use.


Peripherals refer to external devices or components attached to the computer system to enhance their capability or supply extra input/output operations. Such adapters include keyboards, mice, monitors, printers, scanners, and external storage media.


In computing, a pipeline represents interconnected stages executing tasks sequentially, where each stage's output becomes the next's input, enhancing parallelism and modularity in data and software processes.


A pixel is a minimal element of the display of a digital screen or image sensor, typically shown as a single point of colored light. Pixels are the primary elements of digital images, graphics, and video, each of which has information about color, brightness, and position.


In computers, a platform is an environment that consists of hardware and software in which applications and software systems operate. It consists of the operating system, hardware architecture, development tools, libraries, and runtime environment needed to execute and deploy software on a target platform.


In a programming language, a pointer is a variable that holds the memory address location of another variable or object. Pointer manipulation is a common feature in languages such as C and C++ designed to manipulate memory directly, which is the basis of dynamic memory allocation, data structure manipulation, and low-level memory management.


Polymorphism in object-oriented programming allows treating different objects uniformly, enhancing reusability, flexibility, and extensibility via method overriding and overloading, and parametric polymorphism.


In the field of computing, a port is defined as an end of communication or interface on the computer system or network device. Ports are involved in channeling the data exchange between applications and devices by recognizing the specific connections or protocols.


A postmortem is a process in software development and project management. This means that the outcomes, successes, and failures are marked following the completion of a project or operation. It searches for how to act better next time, potential issues of the current project, and methods that worked better than others.


A preprocessor is a program or a tool that performs two tasks of text manipulation, i.e., to manipulate and transform the source code of the computer program before it is compiled or interpreted. Preprocessors are commonly used to include or exclude code sections, define constants, and perform macro expansions.

Primary Key

In database management, a primary key is a unique property or attribute that always identifies and distinguishes each row or record in a database table. It ensures data integrity by guaranteeing that each record has a unique value, which can be used for accessing through either one value or a combination of values.

Private Cloud

A private cloud stands for a cloud computing environment that is dedicated to a single organization or entity rather than the other organizations. It gives more control, security, and customization options than having a cloud service.

Procedural Programming

Procedural programming is a programming shift inferred by a program's structure of procedures, routines, or subroutines. It's the part that undertakes the procedure of executing instructions in this platform and handling data through this process of performing specific tasks.


In the computing world, the term process signifies a particular case of a program or application that is currently running. It is the operational system of a computer, which encompasses reading and executing program instructions as well as main memory, input-output devices, and system resources.

Producer-Consumer Problem

The producer-consumer problem is a classical synchronization problem in computer science and concurrent programming areas that involves two groups of processes, wherein the first group of processes (producers) generate data items and put them in a shared buffer, and the second group of processes (consumers) retrieve and consume these items from the buffer.


Profiling measures computer program or system performance to identify issues, resource patterns, and optimization areas, analyzing CPU, memory, IO, and execution times for insights.

Programming Language

A programming language is a formal language that has standards of syntax and semantics, and that is used to tell instructions to a computer or a computing device. Programming languages empower programmers to codify algorithms that can perform a host of tasks, including software development and control of computer peripherals.


A protocol outlines rules and formats for network communication, defining data presentation, timing, sequence, and error control to ensure compatibility across different platforms.


A proxy is an intermediary server or a software application, such as a gateway, which is situated between clients and servers, acting as an intermediary such that it can facilitate access to servers and resources while providing services.

Public Key Infrastructure

PKI encompasses hardware, software, policies, and procedures for managing digital certificates and keys, enabling secure communication, authentication, and encryption for emails, web, and digital signatures.

Pull Request

A pull request in software development merges a feature branch into the main repository, facilitating review, collaboration, and version control in Git-based workflows.

Push Notification

Push notifications and messages from apps or servers pop up on user screens, providing information or requiring action, commonly engaging users across mobile and web applications.


Python, a high-level, versatile language, excels in web development, data analysis, AI, scientific computing, and automation, thanks to its simplicity, extensive libraries, and supportive community.


A query consists of the request for information or data retrieval from a database or data source, and it is mostly expressed in structured query language (SQL) or a query syntax specific to the data source. Queries encompass search, filter, and operate on data to achieve desired criteria.


A queue is a data structure that is implemented according to the FIFO principle (First-In-First-Out), operands are entered at the back of the structure and removed from the head. Queues are usually used for task scheduling and process management.

RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks)

RAID combines multiple physical disk drives into a single logical unit for improved performance, reliability, or data redundancy, using different configurations known as RAID levels.

RAM (Random Access Memory)

RAM is volatile computer memory that temporarily stores data and program instructions, enabling quick access by the CPU to speed up application processing.


Ransomware encrypts a victim's files, demanding a ransom for access restoration. It targets individuals and organizations, leading to data loss and operational disruption.

Relational Database Management System (RDBMS)

An RDBMS stores data in related tables, simplifying data management through a structured format that facilitates easy data retrieval and manipulation using SQL.

Reactive Programming

This programming paradigm focuses on handling asynchronous data streams and change propagation, enabling the development of responsive applications by reacting to events in real time.

Read-Write Lock

In concurrent programming, a read-write lock controls access to resources, allowing concurrent reads but exclusive access for write operations to prevent data inconsistency.

Real-Time Operating System (RTOS)

An RTOS manages tasks to ensure real-time execution, providing low latency and predictable response times for critical applications in embedded systems and IoT devices.


Recursion is a technique where a function solves a problem by calling itself with a subset of the problem, commonly used in algorithms for tasks like tree traversal.


Redundancy involves having duplicate components in a system to improve reliability and availability, using mirroring and RAID to mitigate hardware failures.


Refactoring improves existing code structure and clarity without altering external behavior, enhancing readability, maintainability, and extensibility.

Regular Expression

Regex uses character patterns to search, match, and manipulate strings in text, offering a powerful tool for pattern matching and data validation.

Relational Database

A relational database organizes data into tables with rows and columns, using SQL for data manipulation and ensuring data integrity through relationships.


A software repository centralizes source code and version-controlled files, facilitating versioning, code sharing, and collaborative development in programming projects.


This communication pattern involves a client sending a request to a server, which processes it and returns a response. Commonly used in web development and client-server architectures, this pattern involves a client sending a request to a server.

REST (Representational State Transfer)

REST is an architectural style for designing networked applications, utilizing HTTP methods for operations on resources, enabling scalable and interoperable web services.


Routing identifies the optimal path for data packets between devices or networks, using algorithms and routing tables to navigate based on destination, topology, and traffic.

RPC (Remote Procedure Call)

RPC allows functions to be executed remotely in distributed systems, abstracting communication complexities and enabling seamless interaction and resource access.


Runtime refers to the execution phase of a program, encompassing the environment, libraries, and resources needed to run the software on a computer system.

SaaS (Software as a Service)

SaaS offers applications over the internet, hosted by third-party vendors, accessible through web browsers. Users pay for this service based on usage or contracts, simplifying software deployment and maintenance.


A sandbox is a secure environment for running software applications without risk to other programs or the system. It restricts access and isolates the application, preventing malware and unauthorized resource use.


Scalability describes a system's capacity to handle increased demand without performance loss. It ensures systems can grow in response to more users or higher resource needs, maintaining efficiency and service quality.


In data management, a schema outlines a database's structure, organizing data elements, tables, fields, and relationships. It establishes data storage, search, and manipulation frameworks.

Scripting Language

Scripting languages facilitate transactional data processing, application automation, and feature enhancement. They are dynamically typed, easy to learn, and ideal for rapid prototyping and web applications.


An SDK provides tools, libraries, and resources for developing applications on specific platforms. It includes compilers, debuggers, APIs, and guides to streamline software creation.


A semaphore is a synchronization tool in concurrent programming that manages access to shared resources. It maintains a count to prevent race conditions and resource conflicts among processes.


Serialization converts data into a format suitable for storage or transmission. It enables data preservation and network communication in distributed software systems.


Servers are computers or software that offer services or resources to clients over a network. They perform data hosting, request processing, and computations, essential in client-server and distributed computing.


Serverless computing lets cloud providers manage resources, allowing applications to run without server management. It focuses on code, enabling on-demand app and service deployment.

Service Mesh

A service mesh is an infrastructure layer facilitating microservices communication in distributed architectures. It uses proxies for traffic management, enhancing cloud application reliability.


A session represents interaction between a client and server, involving data exchange for tasks or transactions. It supports user authentication and personalization in web applications.


A shell is an interface for interacting with an operating system, translating user commands into system actions. It allows access to utilities, file management, and programming via command line or graphical interfaces.

Singleton Pattern

The singleton pattern ensures a class has only one instance that is globally accessible. It controls object creation to maintain a single instance operation.


An SLA outlines expected service levels between providers and customers, setting performance metrics, responsibilities, and penalties for service failures, ensuring quality and accountability.


SOAP facilitates structured information exchange for web services using XML messages. It supports remote procedure calls and data exchange, enabling distributed system development.


Sockets enable data exchange between network nodes or processes, providing APIs for stream communication. They are crucial for inter-process communication and protocol implementation.

Software Architecture

Software architecture defines a system's high-level design, including components, relationships, and patterns. It guides software behavior management through structured organization.

Source Code

Source code is a human-readable program version detailing its logic and functionality in a programming language before compilation.


SQL manages data in relational databases, offering commands and syntax for data querying, modification, and retrieval.


SSL/TLS protocols secure network communication, encrypting data between clients and servers to prevent unauthorized access and ensure data integrity.


A stack is a LIFO (Last-In-First-Out) data structure, used for function calls and expression evaluation, operating by adding and removing elements from its top.


Stateless protocols or systems do not save session status between interactions, treating each request independently for reliability and scalability in distributed computing.

Static IP Address

Unlike dynamic IPs, static IP addresses remain unchanged, offering reliable network connections and facilitating remote access and hosting services.

Static Typing

Static typing assigns variable types at compile-time, improving code reliability and error detection early in development.

Storage Area Network

SANs connect servers to high-speed shared storage devices, using protocols like Fibre Channel for centralized data management and access.


Strings are character sequences representing text or symbols in programming, often immutable, supporting operations like concatenation and comparison.


A struct groups variables of different types into a single unit, facilitating complex data structures with named fields for data organization.


A subnet divides an IP network into smaller segments for efficient address allocation, routing, and security, enhancing network design.


Synchronization aligns processes or threads, using techniques like locks to prevent data corruption and ensure orderly operations in concurrent systems.


Syntax refers to the rules and structure of programming languages, defining element organization and interpretation by compilers or interpreters.

System Call

System calls allow programs to request privileged OS services, enabling hardware, file system, and network service access.

TDD (Test-Driven Development)

TDD is a programming approach where tests are written before the actual code. It follows a cycle: write a failing test, code to pass it, and then refactor. This encourages better design and quick feedback.


In computing, a thread is a sequence of instructions that can be executed independently by the OS, part of a process. Threads enable efficient execution of concurrent tasks within a program, sharing the same memory space.


Throttling controls the rate of data transmission or processing to prevent system overload. It manages network traffic, ensures equitable resource distribution, and enhances system performance and stability by regulating data flow.


In text analysis, tokenization breaks down text into smaller units, such as words or phrases. This fundamental step in natural language processing facilitates further tasks like parsing, indexing or understanding text content.


A toolkit is a collection of software utilities, libraries, and resources tailored for app development within specific frameworks or platforms. It includes APIs, documentation, and development environments to streamline the creation process.


Topology refers to the arrangement and connections between elements in a network or system. It defines how nodes, devices, or components are interconnected, affecting data flow, scalability, and fault management in network environments.


A transaction is an indivisible operation performed by a computer or database system, ensuring data integrity through ACID (Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, Durability) properties during manipulation.


A tree, a hierarchical structure, links nodes via edges, ensuring each node has a parent and possibly children. It organizes data, simplifies operations like search, insertion, and deletion, and depicts relationships.

UAT (User Acceptance Testing)

User Acceptance Testing (UAT) involves stakeholders assessing the software against user needs, focusing on functionality, usability, and satisfaction before it's launched. This key phase ensures the application meets expectations and requirements for production use.

UDP (User Datagram Protocol)

UDP, a TCP/IP suite protocol, sends datagrams without establishing a connection, providing minimal overhead for quick, simple data exchange. Ideal for real-time applications and multimedia streaming, it prioritizes speed over reliability.

UI (User Interface)

The user interface (UI) is the graphical or textual elements through which the users engage with an application or system. UI design is based on enhancing the user experience through the development of intuitive, appealing, and resonant interfaces together with the capabilities of navigation, data input, and task performance by users.


Unicode is a universal character encoding standard that assigns unique numeric codes ('code points') to any character or symbol of a script used in different writing systems, languages, and scripts worldwide. Unicode provides a standardized format for interchanging text data that is consistent across different platforms, operating systems, and languages.

Unit Testing

Unit testing isolates software components to confirm their functionality, focusing on single functions or classes to evaluate input, output, and logic, ensuring code quality and faultlessness.


Unix, a multitasking, multiuser OS family, originated at AT&T Bell Labs in the 1970s includes various versions. Renowned for stability, scalability, and robustness, its command-line interface laid the groundwork for Linux and macOS.

URL (Uniform Resource Locator)

URL stands for Uniform Resource Locator. It is a reference or an address used for ID or the other resources on the network or on the Internet. URLs give information about the protocol, domain name or IP value, and the path to retrieve the resource, allowing web browsers and applications to look for and view web pages, files, and services.

User Experience (UX)

UX, or User Experience, is how a consumer or user relates and interacts with a product, system, or service. UX design emphasizes understanding users' needs, preferences, and actions to produce convenient, fast, and pleasant interfaces by focusing on usability, accessibility, and aesthetics.

UTF-8 (8-bit Unicode Transformation Format)

UTF-8 is a Unicode character encoding standard that can accommodate a one to four-byte character format. UTF-8 is a common encoding on the Internet and in application software where there is a need to support internationalization efforts, multilingual text processing, and working with ASCII.


Validation is verifying data, inputs, or processes for accuracy, completeness, and correctness to align with the specified requirement. Validation uses techniques like data validation, form validation, and process validation to detect errors, inconsistencies, and deviations from normal behavior.

Value Type

In programming, value type is a data type that stores its own value within its own instance as compared to another type called reference type, which stores a reference to the actual data. Value types are often smaller, like integers, floating-point numbers, or structs designed to ensure quick memory allocation and performance benefits.


Varying is a symbolic name or identifier that signifies a member of the storage location(s) in the computer memory where values are stored and operate on such value(s) during program execution. Variables present data type, value, and scope, which allow programmers to dynamically assign, read, and modify data within the code.

Version Control System

A VCS is a software tool or system for managing, tracking, and controlling the changes in the source code, documents, and files over time. VCSs allow for collaboration among developers, keeping track of revisions and version history, resulting in code sharing, branching, merging, and rollback.

Virtual Machine

A Virtual Machine simulates a computer, allowing multiple virtual instances to run on one physical machine. It provides flexibility, isolation, and abstraction, supporting diverse workloads as if on a single server.

Virtual Reality

Virtual Reality (VR) creates immersive 3D experiences, simulating real or fictional worlds through software or hardware. Users interact via headsets, controllers, and sensory feedback for gaming, training, and exploration.

VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network)

VLAN is a network design technique that divides a network into logical parts, and each part acts as an independent network inside the same physical infrastructure. VLANs ensure network security, manageability, and scalability by virtualizing traffic, confining broadcast domains, and enforcing access policies depending on the network membership.

VM (Virtual Memory)

Virtual Memory extends physical RAM by leveraging disk space, allowing the OS to optimize memory use by shuttling data between disk and RAM, facilitating parallel process execution and efficient memory allocation.

VPN (Virtual Private Network)

A virtual private network (VPN) is a trusted connection provided over a public or shared infrastructure like the Internet. VPNs encrypt traffic data between client devices and a remote server, ensuring privacy, confidentiality, and security for secured communication, data transmission, and remote access.


A vulnerability refers to software, hardware, and network systems weaknesses or flaws that attackers may exploit to compromise security, gain unauthorized access, or disrupt operations. Vulnerabilities may come from errors while coding, forgotten settings, design bugs, or used old programs that need either patches or mitigation.

WAF (Web Application Firewall)

A Web Application Firewall (WAF) is a security tool or service that detects, filters or blocks malicious web application traffic. By examining HTTP traffic and applying security policies, WAFs prevent access to attack points, such as SQL injection, XSS, and DDoS attacks.

Web Server

The Web server is the software or hardware system that houses and provides services to client Internet or Intranet users. Web servers are the middlemen that receive HTTP requests from web browsers, deliver webpages, and execute server-side scripts written in PHP, ASP.NET, or Node.js that dynamically create page content.


Webhooks enable real-time notifications to external systems about internal events via HTTP callbacks, eliminating the need for those systems to check for updates actively. This facilitates seamless integration and automation across various software platforms and services.


WebSocket enables real-time, two-way interaction over a single TCP connection, ideal for chats, games, and live updates between browsers and servers.


A workflow outlines specific tasks and steps arranged sequentially to attain a goal in a business or system. It shows task order, dependencies, and conditions, guiding users or systems in structured execution and automating routine activities.

XML (eXtensible Markup Language)

XML, a human-readable data structuring and encoding markup language, consists of hierarchically nested elements and attributes for generic, self-descriptive, platform-independent data representation, commonly employed in data interchange, configuration files, and web services.


XPath, a query language and syntax, navigates and selects XML document elements and attributes. It facilitates software and web services in processing, transforming, and querying XML data by accessing specific nodes and paths.

XSS (Cross-Site Scripting)

XSS enables attackers to inject harmful scripts into web pages, often due to inadequate input validation or encoding. This vulnerability can lead to session cookie theft, user redirection, or arbitrary code execution within a compromised web application.

YAML (YAML Ain't Markup Language)

YAML is a human-readable data format developers use to configure settings and specify structures for data and system requirements. YAML files use indentation and key-value pairs as constructs for a structured data representation, which is a current alternative to XML and JSON formats due to its simplicity.

Zero-Day Exploit

A Zero-Day Exploit is a cyberattack that targets security flaws in software or hardware that are not uncovered by the vendor or developer and are still un-patched or mitigated. The risks of zero-day exploits are enormous as they are capable of bypassing security measures before the system gets patched. Hence, systems and data are compromised.


Software development terms are an array of concepts, technologies, and methods that help to explain and navigate the software development network and security area. Continuous learning and adaptation to new technologies should be incorporated to keep consciousness of the emerging landscape of software development and technology. Simplilearn brings you a Full Stack Developer - MERN Stack. Enroll now to take the first step towards landing your dream job!

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