Arduino vs. Raspberry Pi: Which Is the Better Board?

The Arduino and Raspberry Pi platforms have become increasingly popular among those new to electronics and project development. Arduino has been used in millions of projects and applications because of its simple and accessible user interface. Raspberry Pi can browse the internet and stream high-definition video, as well as spreadsheets, word processing, and gaming, just like a desktop computer. Suppose you're unsure about the differences between these two boards, Arduino vs. Raspberry Pi, then you have come to the right place. This tutorial will explain the differences between Arduino and Raspberry Pi.

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What Is Arduino?

What_is_Arduino

Audrino is an open-source electronic device that reads and generates outputs based on inputs (such as light on a sensor, a finger on a button, or a tweet, such as turning on an LED or activating a motor). Audrino was developed at the Interaction Design Institute in Ivrea as a basic tool for students who had no prior knowledge of electronics or programming. It evolved to suit new demands and obstacles after gaining popularity.

Arduino boards are microcontrollers, not full-fledged computers with their own operating system like the Raspberry Pi. They just execute C/C++ programs stored in their firmware. The Arduino Integrated Development Environment (IDE) is free software that allows you to program an Arduino board and upload your code to it.

What Is Raspberry Pi?

What_is_RaspberryPi.

The Raspberry Pi is a small, low-cost computer the size of a debit card that connects to a monitor or television and utilizes a conventional keyboard and mouse.

It has a dedicated processor, memory, and a graphics driver, just like a PC. It also comes with its operating system, Raspberry Pi OS, a modified version of Linux.

Although the Raspberry Pi lacks storage, you can use microSD cards to store whichever operating system you choose (Raspberry Pi, Ubuntu Mate, etc.). Because the Raspberry Pi has Bluetooth, ethernet, and Wi-Fi connectivity, it may be used to transfer files over the internet. The software and the design of the Raspberry Pi project are not open-source.

Arduino vs. Raspberry Pi

License

Arduino is an open-source electronics platform that uses simple hardware and software to make it easy. It's for everyone who want to do interactive projects. Arduino perceives the environment by receiving data from various sensors and controls lights, motors, and other actuators to influence its surroundings.

Raspberry Pi's hardware and software are both proprietaries. The Raspberry Pi has never claimed to be an open source. Many aspects of it, particularly the software, are open source, but not all of it is. The Raspberry Pi has been criticized for having closed-source components.

Control Unit

Arduino is a member of the Atmega family of microcontrollers. A microcontroller chip common on Arduino Uno boards is the ATmega328. The 8-bit AVR microcontroller family includes ATmega328 microcontrollers. You can see a surface-mount ATmega328 chip on some Arduino Uno boards.

The Raspberry Pi is an ARM Control Unit (ACU). Broadcom chips based on Arm's Cortex-A application processors have powered Raspberry Pi from its release. The Raspberry Pi 3 is the latest version of the Raspberry Pi, launched in February 2016. It has a 1.2 GHz ARM Cortex-A53 CPU, making it the first Raspberry Pi with compatibility for the arm64 architecture.

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Architecture

The Harvard architecture is used by Arduino's CPU, which means that the program code and program data have distinct memory. It comprises two types of memories: program memory and data memory. The data is saved in the memory, while the code is kept in the flash program memory.

Raspberry Pi contains a single-core ARMv6 processor running at 700 MHz, a VideoCore IV GPU, and 512MB RAM. Its operating system and data are stored on an SD card. Raspbian, a lightweight Linux OS based on Debian, is officially supported by the Raspberry Pi.

Specifications

Arduino (Uno R3)

Raspberry Pi 4

Microcontroller: ATmega328P 

Operating Voltage: 5V 

Input Voltage (recommended): 7-12V 

In/out Voltage (limit): 6-20V 

Digital I/O Pins: 14 (of which 6 provide PWM output) 

PWM Digital I/O Pins: 6 

Analog Input Pins: 6 

DC Current per I/O Pin: 20 mA 

DC current for 3.3V Pin: 50 mA 

Flash Memory: 32 KB (ATmega328P) of which 0.5 KB used by bootloader

SRAM: 2 KB (ATmega328P)

EEPROM: 1 KB (ATmega328P)

Clock Speed: 16 MHz

LED_BUILTIN: 13

Length: 68.6 mm 

Width: 58.4 mm 

Weight: 25 g 

1.5GHz 64-bit quad-core ARM Cortex-A72 CPU 

1GB, 2GB, or 4GB RAM 

On-board wireless LAN (dual-band 802.11 b/g/n/ac)

On-board Bluetooth 5.0, low-energy (BLE)

2x USB 3.0 ports

2x USB 2.0 ports

Gigabit Ethernet

Power-over-Ethernet 

GPIO 40-pin 

2× micro-HDMI ports 

OpenGL ES, 3.0 graphics

DSI-display port

CSI-camera port

Combined 3.5mm analog audio-video jack

Micro-SD card slot and USB-C power

Types of Boards

Types_Arduino_vs_RaspberryPi.

Arduino Uno

Arduino Nano

Arduino Micro

LilyPad Arduino

Arduino Mega

Arduino Leonardo

Arduino Red Board

Arduino Shields

Raspberry Pi 1 Model B

Raspberry Pi 1 Model A

Raspberry Pi 1 Model B+

Raspberry Pi 1model A+

Raspberry Pi Zero

Raspberry Pi 2

Raspberry Pi 3 Model B

Raspberry Pi Zero W

Applications

Applications_Arduino_vs_Raspberrypi

Weighing Machines, 

Traffic Light Countdown Timer, 

Parking Lot Counter,

Embedded systems,

Home Automation, 

Industrial Automation, 

Medical Instrument, 

Emergency Light for Railways.

Desktop PC

Wireless Usage

Game Servers

Retro Gaming Machine

Robot Controller

Stop Motion Camera

Time-Lapse Camera

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Operating System

Arduino boards are single-board microcontrollers (SBMCs) with firmware rather than an operating system. A firmware program is a piece of software installed on a hardware device. It doesn't have an operating system, but you can program firmware using several IDEs, including the Arduino IDE.

The Raspberry Pi operating system for PC and Mac is Debian with Raspberry Pi Desktop. It installs the Raspberry Pi OS desktop and most of the recommended applications that come with Raspberry Pi OS on any PC or Apple Mac.

Conclusion 

Both Arduino and Raspberry Pi have their own set of benefits and drawbacks. The best option for you will be determined by the nature of your job and your budget.

Arduino is ideal for automating repetitive operations such as opening and closing doors, turning on and off lights, etc. Arduino should be your first pick if your project has any repeating elements and requires generating output depending on sensory inputs.

Raspberry Pi is ideally suited for complex activities such as controlling complex robots, weather monitoring, and internet publishing. If your project necessitates advanced functionality and internet access, the Raspberry Pi is the answer.

Next Steps

Hope this tutorial on 'Arduino vs Raspberry Pi' has given you a good understanding of the Raspberry Pi and Arduino ideas and their differences. Course certification will benefit you if you plan to study these technologies and work as a developer or programmer.

If you want to study the Raspberry Pi or Arduino and work as a developer or programmer, course certification can help you. Enroll in the Internet of Things (IoT) Course.

In the comments section, please let us know if you have any specific queries about 'Arduino vs. Raspberry Pi.' Please let us know if you have any suggestions or questions about using Arduino vs Raspberry Pi as well, our experts will respond as quickly as possible!

About the Author

Ravikiran A SRavikiran A S

Ravikiran A S works with Simplilearn as a Research Analyst. He an enthusiastic geek always in the hunt to learn the latest technologies. He is proficient with Java Programming Language, Big Data, and powerful Big Data Frameworks like Apache Hadoop and Apache Spark.

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