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Cyber Security Tutorial: A Step-by-Step Guide


What is Cybersecurity?

Lesson - 1

Cyber Security for Beginners

Lesson - 2

How to Become a Cybersecurity Engineer?

Lesson - 3

What is Ethical Hacking?

Lesson - 4

What is Penetration Testing?: A Step-by-Step Guide

Lesson - 5

What Is SQL Injection: How to Prevent SQL Injection

Lesson - 6

How to Become an Ethical Hacker?

Lesson - 7

What Is a Firewall and Why Is It Vital?

Lesson - 8

The Complete Know-How on the

Lesson - 9

A Definitive Guide to Learn the SHA 256 Algorithm

Lesson - 10

What Is a Ransomware Attack and How Can You Prevent It?

Lesson - 11

A Look at the Top 5 Programming Languages for Hacking

Lesson - 12

The Most Informative Guide on What Is an IP Address?

Lesson - 13

The Best Ethical Hacking + Cybersecurity Books

Lesson - 14

10 Types of Cyber Attacks You Should Be Aware in 2022

Lesson - 15

The Top Computer Hacks of All Time

Lesson - 16

Top 6 Cyber Security Jobs in 2022

Lesson - 17

The Best Guide to The Top Cybersecurity Interview Questions

Lesson - 18

What Is a Brute Force Attack and How to Protect Our Data Against It?

Lesson - 19

The Top 8 Cybersecurity Skills You Must Have

Lesson - 20

Your Guide to Choose the Best Operating System Between Parrot OS vs. Kali Linux

Lesson - 21

All You Need to Know About Parrot Security OS

Lesson - 22

The Best and Easiest Way to Understand What Is a VPN

Lesson - 23

What Is NMap? A Comprehensive Tutorial for Network Mapping

Lesson - 24

What Is Google Dorking? Your Way to Becoming the Best Google Hacker

Lesson - 25

Your Best Guide to a Successful Cyber Security Career Path

Lesson - 26

The Value of Python in Ethical Hacking and a Password Cracking Tutorial

Lesson - 27

The Best Guide to Understand What Is TCP/IP Model?

Lesson - 28

What Are Keyloggers and Its Effect on Our Devices?

Lesson - 29

Best Guide to Understand the Importance of What Is Subnetting

Lesson - 30

Your Guide to What Is 5G and How It Works

Lesson - 31

How to Crack Passwords and Strengthen Your Credentials Against Brute-Force

Lesson - 32

A Look at ‘What Is Metasploitable’, a Hacker’s Playground Based on Ubuntu Virtual Machines

Lesson - 33

One-Stop Guide to Understanding What Is Distance Vector Routing?

Lesson - 34

Best Walkthrough for Understanding the Networking Commands

Lesson - 35

Best Guide to Understanding the Operation of Stop-and-Wait Protocol

Lesson - 36

The Best Guide to Understanding the Working and Importance of Go-Back-N ARQ Protocol

Lesson - 37

What Are Digital Signatures: A Thorough Guide Into Cryptographic Authentication

Lesson - 38

The Best Spotify Data Analysis Project You Need to Know

Lesson - 39

A One-Stop Solution Guide to Understand Data Structure and Algorithm Complexity

Lesson - 40

Your One-Stop Guide ‘On How Does the Internet Work?’

Lesson - 41

An Introduction to Circuit Switching and Packet Switching

Lesson - 42

One-Stop Guide to Understanding What Is Network Topology?

Lesson - 43

A Deep Dive Into Cross-Site Scripting and Its Significance

Lesson - 44

The Best Walkthrough on What Is DHCP and Its Working

Lesson - 45

A Complete Look at What a Proxy Is, Along With the Working of the Proxy Server

Lesson - 46

A Detailed Guide to Understanding What Identity and Access Management Is

Lesson - 47

The Best Guide to Understanding the Working and Effects of Sliding Window Protocol

Lesson - 48

The Best Guide That You’ll Ever Need to Understand Typescript and Express

Lesson - 49

Express REST API

Lesson - 50

All You Need to Know About Express JS Middleware

Lesson - 51

An Absolute Guide to Know Everything on Expressions in C

Lesson - 52

A Definitive Guide on How to Create a Strong Password

Lesson - 53

Ubuntu vs. Debian: A Look at Beginner Friendly Linux Distribution

Lesson - 54

Your One-Stop Guide to Learn Command Prompt Hacks

Lesson - 55

Best Walkthrough to Understand the Difference Between IPv4 and IPv6

Lesson - 56

What Is Kali NetHunter? A Deep Dive Into the Hackbox for Android

Lesson - 57

A Perfect Guide That Explains the Differences Between a Hub and a Switch

Lesson - 58

The Best Guide to Help You Understand What Is Network Security

Lesson - 59

What Is CIDR? And Its Importance in the Networking Domain

Lesson - 60
Best Guide to Understanding the Operation of Stop-and-Wait Protocol

With the setup of multiple network channels, the difficulty of controlling the transmission of data and information between the sender and receiver side has also significantly increased. In this article on ‘Stop-and-Wait Protocol,’ we will learn to control and maintain efficient data flow through the stop-and-wait data exchange method.

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What Is Stop-and-Wait Protocol?

To begin with, let’s look into some basic information about the protocol to understand the working of the stop-and-wait protocol better.


  • The Stop-and-wait protocol is a data exchange method designed to be active in the data link layer of the OSI model and is used in the data exchange between network devices in noiseless channels.


  • This protocol is designed to transfer data in a unidirectional data flow without application for error detection services.


  • The most important point of this protocol is based on the acknowledgment-based data transmission, i.e., the sender side will wait for the next data transfer until it receives the acknowledgment from the receiver side.

Next, we will look into the steps involved in the stop-and-wait protocol.

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Steps Involved in the Protocol

There are two main steps involved in the working of the stop-and-wait protocol that is required in the data exchange process:

Sender Side

Step 1: Transmission of one data unit at a time.

Step 2: The sender side will send the next data unit unless the receiver send’s the acknowledgment signal.

Receiver Side

Step 1: This side will receive the data sent by the sender side and use it.

Step 2:  After the receiver side uses the data, it will send the acknowledgment signal to the sender’s side for the next data transmission.

Now let’s move on to the working procedure of the protocol.

Working on the Stop-and-Wait Protocol

To better understand the working of the protocol, we will divide the data exchange method into steps:


  1. For the first step, the sender side will share the data with the receiver end for it to use.
  2. Then, according to the stop-and-wait method, the sender side will wait for the receiver's end to share the acknowledgment for data exchange to take place.
  3. The receiver side will use the data received and send the acknowledgment signal to the sender side.
  4. After receiving the acknowledgment, the sender end will share the next data unit.
  5. The exchange of data is continued for N no. of packets.

Then let’s move on to the drawbacks of applying the stop-and-wait protocol.

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Drawbacks of Applying the Protocol

Even if the protocol provides the network with various benefits, it also falls short in some cases. Some of the drawbacks of the stop-and-wait protocol are:

1. Data Loss During the Transmission Between Network Devices.


The issue is when the data is not received by the receiver, or the acknowledgment is not received by the sender side.

2. Issues With Sharing the Acknowledgment With the Sender End.


If no acknowledgment is received, the data exchange is paused from the sender side due to no error flow and control in the network.

3. Delay in Reaching the Acknowledgment to the Sender End.

The acknowledgment received after the time-out session is discarded by the sender end and halts the data transmission.


After completing this heading, we have covered all the parts needed to understand the stop-and-wait protocol.

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In this article on ‘Stop-and-Wait Protocol,’ we understood the importance of the network method that governs the data transmission between the devices in a communication channel. Then we also looked into the steps involved and working of the stop-and-wait protocol in the network.

If you want to learn more about the topic related to a network protocol and look further into the stop-and-wait protocol, you can refer to Simplilearn’s Cyber Security Expert course. This expert will help you train in the topics related to a network protocol and its deeply rooted need in a network channel.

Do you have any questions about this article on ‘Stop-and-Wait Protocol’. If yes, feel free to include them in the comment section at the bottom of this page. The Simplilearn team will help you solve your queries ASAP.

About the Author

Anmol KapoorAnmol Kapoor

Anmol is a Research Analyst who aims to become a Data Scientist one day. He enjoys Data Management systems and analysis. You will find him reading a book when he is not working.

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