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Cyber Security Tutorial: A Step-by-Step Guide

Overview

What is Cybersecurity?

Lesson - 1

Cyber Security for Beginners

Lesson - 2

How to Become a Cybersecurity Engineer?

Lesson - 3

What is Ethical Hacking?

Lesson - 4

What is Penetration Testing?: A Step-by-Step Guide

Lesson - 5

What Is SQL Injection: How to Prevent SQL Injection

Lesson - 6

How to Become an Ethical Hacker?

Lesson - 7

What Is a Firewall and Why Is It Vital?

Lesson - 8

The Complete Know-How on the

Lesson - 9

A Definitive Guide to Learn the SHA 256 Algorithm

Lesson - 10

What Is a Ransomware Attack and How Can You Prevent It?

Lesson - 11

A Look at the Top 5 Programming Languages for Hacking

Lesson - 12

The Most Informative Guide on What Is an IP Address?

Lesson - 13

The Best Ethical Hacking + Cybersecurity Books

Lesson - 14

10 Types of Cyber Attacks You Should Be Aware in 2022

Lesson - 15

The Top Computer Hacks of All Time

Lesson - 16

Top 6 Cyber Security Jobs in 2022

Lesson - 17

The Best Guide to The Top Cybersecurity Interview Questions

Lesson - 18

What Is a Brute Force Attack and How to Protect Our Data Against It?

Lesson - 19

The Top 8 Cybersecurity Skills You Must Have

Lesson - 20

Your Guide to Choose the Best Operating System Between Parrot OS vs. Kali Linux

Lesson - 21

All You Need to Know About Parrot Security OS

Lesson - 22

The Best and Easiest Way to Understand What Is a VPN

Lesson - 23

What Is NMap? A Comprehensive Tutorial for Network Mapping

Lesson - 24

What Is Google Dorking? Your Way to Becoming the Best Google Hacker

Lesson - 25

Your Best Guide to a Successful Cyber Security Career Path

Lesson - 26

The Value of Python in Ethical Hacking and a Password Cracking Tutorial

Lesson - 27

The Best Guide to Understand What Is TCP/IP Model?

Lesson - 28

What Are Keyloggers and Its Effect on Our Devices?

Lesson - 29

Best Guide to Understand the Importance of What Is Subnetting

Lesson - 30

Your Guide to What Is 5G and How It Works

Lesson - 31

How to Crack Passwords and Strengthen Your Credentials Against Brute-Force

Lesson - 32

A Look at ‘What Is Metasploitable’, a Hacker’s Playground Based on Ubuntu Virtual Machines

Lesson - 33

One-Stop Guide to Understanding What Is Distance Vector Routing?

Lesson - 34

Best Walkthrough for Understanding the Networking Commands

Lesson - 35

Best Guide to Understanding the Operation of Stop-and-Wait Protocol

Lesson - 36

The Best Guide to Understanding the Working and Importance of Go-Back-N ARQ Protocol

Lesson - 37

What Are Digital Signatures: A Thorough Guide Into Cryptographic Authentication

Lesson - 38

The Best Spotify Data Analysis Project You Need to Know

Lesson - 39

A One-Stop Solution Guide to Understand Data Structure and Algorithm Complexity

Lesson - 40

Your One-Stop Guide ‘On How Does the Internet Work?’

Lesson - 41

An Introduction to Circuit Switching and Packet Switching

Lesson - 42

One-Stop Guide to Understanding What Is Network Topology?

Lesson - 43

A Deep Dive Into Cross-Site Scripting and Its Significance

Lesson - 44

The Best Walkthrough on What Is DHCP and Its Working

Lesson - 45

A Complete Look at What a Proxy Is, Along With the Working of the Proxy Server

Lesson - 46

A Detailed Guide to Understanding What Identity and Access Management Is

Lesson - 47

The Best Guide to Understanding the Working and Effects of Sliding Window Protocol

Lesson - 48

The Best Guide That You’ll Ever Need to Understand Typescript and Express

Lesson - 49

Express REST API

Lesson - 50

All You Need to Know About Express JS Middleware

Lesson - 51

An Absolute Guide to Know Everything on Expressions in C

Lesson - 52

A Definitive Guide on How to Create a Strong Password

Lesson - 53

Ubuntu vs. Debian: A Look at Beginner Friendly Linux Distribution

Lesson - 54

Your One-Stop Guide to Learn Command Prompt Hacks

Lesson - 55

Best Walkthrough to Understand the Difference Between IPv4 and IPv6

Lesson - 56

What Is Kali NetHunter? A Deep Dive Into the Hackbox for Android

Lesson - 57

A Perfect Guide That Explains the Differences Between a Hub and a Switch

Lesson - 58

What Is Network Security? Benefits, Types of Tools To Protect Your Shared Network

Lesson - 59

What Is CIDR? And Its Importance in the Networking Domain

Lesson - 60

A Thorough Guide on Application Security: Benefits, Risks, and Protection Mechanisms

Lesson - 61
The Best Guide to Understand What Is TCP/IP Model?

The excess requirement of efficient and error-free data transmission over communication channels leads us to the discussion of the topic - what is the TCP/IP model. This tutorial will easily help to make you understand the basis and need for the TCP/IP model in the network domain. The TCP/IP is needed for implementing various network applications during the transmission of data and information over the communication channel.

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What Is TCP/IP Model?

TCP_Model_1

The TCP/IP model refers to the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol Model. This model is a part of the network domain designed specifically for overseeing efficient and error-free transmission of data.

The model works on a four-layered architecture model, where each layer implicit the required network protocols on the data to be transmitted, which remodels the data to the most optimum structure for efficient transmission over the network.

In this tutorial on what is TCP/IP model is, you will understand the working of each layer in detail to better understand the functioning of the model.

Features of the TCP/IP Model

Below mentioned are some of the features that make the TCP/IP model stand out in the network concepts:

  • The TCP/IP model is among one of the most important network concepts that contributed to the working of ARPANET.
  • The TCP/IP model comprises four layers: the network access layer, internet layer, transport layer, and application layer (going from bottom to top).
  • The network model is implemented during network and communication-related issues.
  • Communication between different modes of network devices is possible through the application of various layers.
  • The layers in the model provide maintenance of communication channel, flow control, reliability check format, among other applications in the form of protocols.

Now go ahead and continue with the next topic in this tutorial on ‘what is TCP/ IP model’, which includes the layers of the TCP/IP model.

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Layers of the TCP/IP Model

In this section, you will understand the different layers of the model and their functionality in the network concept:

The TCP/IP model is divided into four different layers:

  • Application layer
  • Transport layer
  • Internet layer
  • Network Access layer

Each layer performs a specific task on the data that is being transmitted over the network channel, and data moves from one layer to another in a preset pattern as mentioned below:

TCP_Model_2

The above model represents the flow of data when it is being transmitted from the sender side. In the case of data being received, the layers of the model work in reverse order.

Now, take a look at each of the layers in detail:

Application Layer

TCP_Model_3

This is the topmost layer which indicates the applications and programs that utilize the TCP/IP model for communicating with the user through applications and various tasks performed by the layer, including data representation for the applications executed by the user and forwards it to the transport layer.

The application layer maintains a smooth connection between the application and user for data exchange and offers various features as remote handling of the system, e-mail services, etc.

Some of the protocols used in this layer are:

  • HTTP: Hypertext transfer protocol is used for accessing the information available on the internet.
  • SMTP: Simple mail transfer protocol, assigned the task of handling e-mail related steps and issues.
  • FTP: This is the standard protocol that oversees the transfer of files over the network channel.

Now, move on to the next layer, 

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Transport Layer

TCP_Model_4.

This layer is responsible for establishing the connection between the sender and the receiver device and also performs the task of dividing the data from the application layer into packets, which are then used to create sequences. 

It also performs the task of maintaining the data, i.e., to be transmitted without error, and controls the data flow rate over the communication channel for smooth transmission of data.

The protocols used in this layer are:

  • TCP: Transmission Control Protocol is responsible for proper transmission of segments over the communication channel. It also establishes a network connection between the source and destination system.
  • UDP: User Datagram Protocol is responsible for identifying errors, and other tasks during the transmission of information. UDP maintains various fields for data transmission such as:
  • Source Port Address: This port is responsible for designing the application that makes up the message to be transmitted.
  • Destination Port Address: This port receives the message sent from the sender side.
  • Total Length: The total number of bytes of user datagram.
  • Checksum: Used for error detection of the message at the destination side.

Moving on to the next layer, you have -

Internet Layer

TCP_Model_5

The Internet layer performs the task of controlling the transmission of the data over the network modes and enacts protocols related to the various steps related to the transmission of data over the channel, which is in the form of packets sent by the previous layer.

This layer performs many important functions in the TCP/IP model, some of which are:

  1. It is responsible for specifying the path that the data packets will use for transmission.
  2. This layer is responsible for providing IP addresses to the system for the identification matters over the network channel.

Some of the protocols applied in this layer are:

  • IP: This protocol assigns your device with a unique address; the IP address is also responsible for routing the data over the communication channel.
  • ARP: This protocol refers to the Address Resolution Protocol that is responsible for finding the physical address using the IP address.

The last layer in the network model is the network access layer.

Network Access Layer

TCP_Model_6.

This layer is the combination of data-link and physical layer, where it is responsible for maintaining the task of sending and receiving data in raw bits, i.e., in binary format over the physical communication modes in the network channel.

  • It uses the physical address of the system for mapping the path of transmission over the network channel.
  • Till this point in this tutorial on what is TCP/IP model, you understood the basic idea behind the model and details about its layers, now compare the model with another network model.

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OSI Model vs. TCP IP Model

The TCP/IP model was designed in the 1960s to maintain and explain the transmission of data, whereas the OSI model is a network concept specifically for explaining the communication and working of data and protocols during the transmission of information.

TCP_Model_7.

OSI Model

TCP/IP Model

The OSI model consists of 7 layers.

TCP/IP model comprises 4 layers.

The OSI model has separate session and presentation layers.

This model comprises a session and presentation layer in the application layer.

The transport layer in this model provides a packet delivery protocol.

In this model, the transport layer does not have any such protocols.

This model is implemented during network communication.

This model is used as a reference model for the network channel.

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Conclusion

In this ‘What is TCP/IP model’ tutorial, you understood the network communication details about data, which includes the basic idea behind the working of the model, the functioning of each layer in the model, and also how the data is restructured to achieve efficient transmission over the communication channel.

To better understand the working of each layer and the different steps they take during the data transmission over the network from a professional point of view, you can refer to Simplilearn’s Cyber Security Expert course, which will allow you to gain in-depth knowledge about the network functions and working of the model at a whole new level.

Do you have any questions related to this tutorial on ‘What is TCP/IP model?’ If yes, feel free to mention them in the comments section at the bottom of this page. Our team will help you solve your queries ASAP.

About the Author

Kartik MenonKartik Menon

Kartik is an experienced content strategist and an accomplished technology marketing specialist passionate about designing engaging user experiences with integrated marketing and communication solutions.

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